Based on its vast experience in the world and the Asian region, SNV decided in 2009 to expand its’ activities in Cambodia into the agricultural sector. The choice was made to focus on agricultural diversification into fruits and vegetables with the aim to stimulate income generating activities for rural households. This study aims to understand what the underlying motivations are for farmers to start growing vegetables as a cash crop, or not. The study gives interesting insights in what motivates farmers, and how Cambodian cultural beliefs play an important role in that.
This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the conditions for helping households finance the construction of a biodigester. A micro-credit programme for biodigester users was jointly designed by the National Biodigester Programme (NBP), Netherlands Development Finance Company (FMO) and Microfinance Institutions (MFIs).
By using in-depth interviews, a household survey and a desk study, it was determined that the demand for biodigester market was significant, with 96.5% of the studied households possessing the capacity to operate a biodigester. The research for demand for micro-credit showed that households were indeed in need of a financial aid (84%) but the majority was unwilling to borrow credit due to fear of inability to repay it. The ones willing to borrow demanded a credit size of 400,000-1,200,000riels. The MFIs contacted (ACLEDA, Amret, CEB, Prasac, HURREDO) were interested in lending a micro-credit to biodigester users but were also concerned for the credit at it was for consumption and not production. It appeared that credit conditions desired by potential biodigester users were overall in line with MFIs offered conditions, but an interest rate gap was also in place.
Some of the extensive suggestions on how to alleviate the problem offered in the report place FMO in the centre of operations as a possible guarantor of default loans, among other duties. The challenges likely to arise because of a roll-out strategy (linking potential biodigester users with micro-credit), as well plausible solutions are presented as well.
This biodigester user survey evaluates the impact of biodigester installations on households in Cambodia based on interviews and structured questionnaires.
The survey found out that the main motivation for households to build a biodigester in the first place was to reduce firewood consumption which was expensive and difficult to find. Interestingly, more than 94% of households financed the construction solely from their savings. The satisfaction with Masons services provided was also extremely high (94%). The post construction training analysis revealed that 93% of interviewees received training on how to operate the plant. Other main findings indicated that households used biogas for both cooking and lighting. The ones who used it for cooking stated the speed with which they can cook as compared to firewood, as a main advantage. As for lighting, 94% of households have installed biogas lamps and were very satisfied with them. The overall satisfaction with the programme indicated that households were indeed pleased with the $100 subsidy they received, and that the satisfaction with the quality guarantee policy was also very high. Further, the biodigester installation has produced substantial financial savings for users and has increased the yield.
The overall study results indicated a very positive impact of biogas on all aspects studied. Despite this, improvement was desired in some areas of the programme, for which specific recommendations were provided (e.g. additional training on plant operation and maintenance was needed, initiatives to link poor clients with microfinance are needed, etc.).
This report presents the results of the Biodigester User Survey(BUS) which was commissioned in order to assess the socio-economic structure of beneficiary households, and reception, acceptance and impact of biodigesters.
Overall, the survey reported high degree of satisfaction with the biodigesters and indicated that all of them were put in use. The biodigester was fully financed by nearly 85% of households and all but one household received subsidy and was highly satisfied with it. An astonishing finding was the 92% decrease in the amount of money spent on cooking fuels. Another major finding was that the biodigester had no major impact on the use of chemical fertilisers. Although the data suggested an overall decrease in the use of chemical fertilisers, this only indicated a change in the overall pattern of fertiliser use, with bio-slurry replacing the direct application of dung. All households agreed that if more people were aware of the biodigester, much more plants would be built, which has led to the need for increased and improved promotional activities.
Some of the recommendations comprised based on the extensive analysis of survey results were the need for promotional activities to focus on the economic benefits of bio-slurry. A more comprehensive analysis of the results, supported with graphs and visual aids can be found in the report.
The National Biodigester Programme of Cambodia has undertaken a Biodigester User Survey (BUS) with two main objectives:
The biodigester user profile details on the socio-economic condition of the households; numbers of animals owned; and cooking practices. Awareness of biogas technology and decision making in the households is surveyed, as well as the construction costs for biodigesters and loans provided. Mason skills and trainings, like bio-slurry or operation trainings, are assessed.
The study elaborates on the performance of biodigesters and the owner’s satisfaction levels. Savings in terms of time and finances provide insight in the effects of switching to biogas use. The few negative elements found in the survey are far outweighed by the enormous benefits of the biodigesters to the rural farmers’ lives. The biodigesters result in a sustainable development, especially through the incredible improvement in the cooking environment, with no more smoke, soot or ashes; the quality of the biogas light is evaluated brighter than fluorescent lights; and the organic bio-slurry fertiliser increasing rice and vegetable yields and improving the soil quality.
The National Biodigester Programme of Cambodia has undertaken a Biodigester User Survey (BUS) with three main objectives:
A sample of 150 households was chosen out of the total households in the 12 chosen districts. The biodigester user profile details on the socio-economic condition of the households; numbers of animals owned; and cooking practices.
Awareness of biogas technology and decision making in the households is surveyed, as well as the construction costs for biodigesters and loans provided. Mason skills and trainings, like bio-slurry or operation trainings, are assessed.
The study elaborates on the performance of biodigesters and the owner’s satisfaction levels. Savings in terms of time and finances provide more insight in the effects of switching to biogas use. The survey provides detailed conclusions and recommendation to the programme.
The overall objective of the first phase of the National Biodigester Programme (NBP) is ‘The dissemination of domestic biodigesters as an indigenous, sustainable energy source through the development of a commercial, market oriented biodigester sector in selected provinces of Cambodia’. The programme is currently operational in 8 provinces after being started in 3 provinces in April 2006. This ToR has 5 sections. The first describes the 2 principal objectives of the BUS and its specific objectives. The second is about the survey sample. The approach and methodology is described in the third section, and the fourth one contains the work schedule. Finally, the fifth section elaborates on deliverables with paragraphs on proposal of the consultant, inception report, draft biogas user survey report, the final biogas user survey report, and biogas user survey workshop.
The document presents the summaries of the 12 case studies used to illustrate SNV practices which contributed to the writing of the practice brief N° 4 focusing on Gender and Agriculture (see: www.snvworld.org/en/sectors/agriculture/publications/gender-and-agriculture-practice-brief). The summaries provide an insight of the gender issue and what practices SNV implemented to address to this specific constraint. The document also offers you hyperlinks at the end of each summary to enable you read the full intervention.
This paper describes characteristics of latrines that have been built with financial support from a development program in rural Cambodia. But it does not intend to capture the outcome of any specific program or project. On the contrary, the analysis is based on the database of the comprehensive multi-stakeholder KAP Household Survey led by MRD in 2010. The objective is to better understand the effects that the act of subsidising may or may not have on the behaviour of rural households and communities.
The success or failure of any biodigester depends mainly upon the suitability of the design, site for construction and quality of construction works, as well as quality of construction materials and workmanship involved during construction. This booklet provides the extensive information on various methods for selecting the appropriate size and site for construction, as well as construction work steps related to the Farmer’s Friend model (2005) of biodigester.
First, mason’s responsibilities are explained. Second, the report continues with the sizes of available biodigesters and the quantity of feeding required. Then, the components of the biogas plant and instructions as to how to select the appropriate size are described. It continues with construction materials and appliances, and the selection of the construction site. Finally, the plant construction is explained from lay-out work to the construction of compost pits, finishing work and instructions to users.
If the concerned mason/plumber strictly follows the instruction as described in this construction manual, the biodigester will function properly with the anticipated efficiency and the owner will get the return of his/her investment. This will encourage his/her relatives and neighbours to install biodigesters. However, if the biodigester functions poorly, nobody will be motivated to install it. Poor quality plants will harm the reputation of biogas technology and will have serious negative effects on promotion and extension activities. The masons should, therefore, be well aware that good quality plants will certainly increase the rate of installation with the demonstration effect that ultimately benefits itself, the farmer, and the country as a whole.
Report on the feasibility study for a biodigester support programme in the Kingdom of Cambodia (2005).
This study assesses the feasibility of setting-up a national biodigester programme (NBP) in Cambodia (by relying on reports, studies, interviews, workshops, etc.).
Study findings indicated that households in rural Cambodia depend for more than 90% on fuel wood and that it has become gradually more difficult to meet their daily needs due to the insufficient fuel wood sustainable production. Based on these and other findings, it was established that NBP has high potential and could tremendously benefit the country by improving quality of life of households, by creating an integrated farming system, etc.
The key recommendations provided in order to set-up the programme included the creation of a national Biodigester Programme Office (BPO) to establish and coordinate the different activities that needed to be undertaken, as well as the leading roles NGOs, financial institutions, and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) should play. As for technology, focus on quality of information, construction
and after-sales services was pointed as key references. Finance recommendations specified the need for finance to be channelled through existing banking institutes (e.g. Association of Cambodian Local Economic Development-ACLEDA and Micro Finance Institution- AMRET). To commercialize the programme, establishment of local biodigester enterprises was strongly encouraged. Further, integrated farming references pointed the need for research on the use of the full potential of digester effluent and dissemination of the research results to be an integrated part of the programme. The extensive recommendations, supported by facts, figures and analysis can be found in the report.
Official coverage figures for rural water supply make us hopeful - MDG targets for water will likely be met. Yet, the disappointing reality is that only a fraction of this is functional and providing regular water supply that is safe for drinking. The premature deterioration of ‘improved’ water supply makes unreliable and unsafe water services a daily reality for large parts of the rural population in Asia.
SNV recognises that providing functional and sustainable water supply services is a challenge that goes far beyond coverage at a given point in time. Increased capacity at all levels is essential for sustainability.
This practice brief explores women and gender issues in SNV Netherlands Development Organisation’s support to agricultural value chains in Africa and Asia. Across the two regions there are wide disparities in women’s access to and control over productive resources, service delivery and market opportunities. Drawing on a wide variety of case studies, the Brief describes various ways in which the underlying gender constraints are identified and addressed, through an explicit focus on women’s economic and social empowerment.
This Practice Brief highlights various approaches used to promote gender equality in the agriculture; water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); and renewable energy (RE) sectors in Asian countries. SNV Asia has provided extensive capacity-building support in these sectors while putting ‘inclusive development’ at the forefront of the development agenda. The Practice Brief is an attempt to document practices from the field based on successful experiences of SNV in Bhutan, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Nepal and Vietnam. It aims to be a quick reference for development practitioners (within and outside SNV) who are committed to mainstream gender in these three sectors.
National Biodigester Programme (NBP) is a joint development between the Cambodia Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) aimed to disseminate domestic biodigesters as an indigenous, sustainable energy source through the development of a commercial, market oriented, biodigester sector in eight selected provinces.
The validation is an independent evaluation by a Designated Operational Entity (DOE) that a project fulfils Gold Standard validation requirements. Validation is part of the Gold Standard project cycle and will finally result in a conclusion by the executing DOE whether a project activity is valid and should be submitted for registration to the Gold Standard.
The validation scope is defined as an independent and objective review of the project design and project documentation. The documents are reviewed against the criteria stated in:
It is SQS’ opinion, that the project meets all relevant criteria of the listed references and correctly applies the approved methodology and therefore SQS request the registration of given Gold Standard project.