Key findings of the research: confirmed that Ethiopian MFIs are highly dependent on fund from external sources and they will find it difficult to extend loan for biogas user while satisfying the current financial need of their clientele; they also lack human resource capacity to participate in the NBP; they exhibited low level application of modern technologies such as MIS as a result of their limited financial capacity; majority of the MFIs are not aware of biogas technology and its benefit to the society, the environment and the business opportunity for their own organisation provided through new loan product; even if there is lack of proper infrastructure which could result in higher interest rate for rural households compensating the resulting higher transaction cost, MFIs are not charging rural clients higher interest rate, they rather vary the interest rate based on the lending methodology, the type of loan products and repayment period which is the same for all rural, semi-urban and urban clients.
Main conclusions: without building their financial, human resource and institutional capacity, with their current limited capacity Ethiopia MFIs will find it difficult to participate in NBP; lack of awareness about biogas lead MFIs to think that providing loan for biogas user is a risky business and they put forward a number of pre-requisites and additional guarantee requirements for biodigesters for the sake of their own security; lack of awareness found out to be a low level problem that could be addressed by continuous training and awareness raising campaigns.
Article introduces briefly the history and status of biogas technology, as part of Ethiopian rural energy services. It elaborates on the development of a National Biogas Program with assistance from SNV. EREDPC was identified to coordinate the programme.
The artcile discusses the folowing topics:
- A step towards a national biogas program in Ethiopia;
- Rural Energy in Ethiopia;
- Institutional Arrangement;
- EREDPC and implementation experience of rural energy technologies;
- Status of biogas dissemination in Ethiopia;
- SNV and the Ethiopian National Biogas Program (NBP);
- Goal of the National Biogas Program;
- SNV Approach;
- Moments of success;
- Lessons Learnt;
Contact details are provided.
This annual report provides more detail of the strategic position choices SNV made in East and Southern Africa in 2007 and illustrates our approach with case studies from our practice.
Energy in Africa capability statement
This report assessed two toilet-linked biogas digesters to determine the presence of pathogenic microorganisms and nutrient value of the effluent slurry. These were Kokebe Tsebah Senior Secondary School and Higher 12 Medium Technical and Vocational Training Institute in Addis Ababa. The parameters analyzed were temperature, pH, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, phosphorous, potassium, total coliform and fecal coliform. They were all measured using standard methods. The efficiency of both digesters was evaluated based on concentration and percentage removal of the above parameters. The report shows that the efficiency of removal is better in Kokebe Tsebah digester than the higher 12 digester. The assessment of nutrients showed that there are enough amounts of nutrients like nitrate, potassium and phosphate that can increase soil fertility if applied to vegetables and crops.
In general, the results showed that Fermented slurry, sometimes called bio-slurry, is an excellent organic fertilizer which can make an important contribution to better crop yields and lasting soil fertility. Although the nutrient content of the slurry is high and it is important for use as a fertilizer, the high number of total coliforms and fecal coliforms found can contaminate the environment in which the effluent is being released. As a conclusion, effluent slurry of digesters could be a potential source of environmental pollution in general and human infection in particular. Therefore, in order to avoid pollution and utilize the slurry as a source of fertilizer the report ends with recommendations.
Report on the feasibility study of a national programme for
domestic biogas in Ethiopia (2006).
This report evaluates the feasibility of establishing a National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) in Ethiopia, a country where rural domestic energy supply is entirely biomass based, energy consumption is high, demand of energy exceeds supply, and renewable energy levels are low.
Study findings concluded that there was significant technical potential for domestic biogas in the regions studied (Amhara, Oromia, SNNPRS and Tigray). However, despite the potential, important challenging areas have been also found: the low level of disposable income of rural households diminishes potential investments; the very limited rural dissemination infrastructure and scattered population pattern cause dissemination activities to be lengthy and expensive; gender imbalance in decision-making further discourages investment, etc. Further, 60% of the visited installations were not functioning due to technology problems (e.g. lack of technical back-up services), water shortage problems (e.g. large
distance to water sources cause plants to stop operating), dung shortage problems (e.g. amount of available dung did not meet farmers’ expectations), plants abandonment (e.g. when families moved to another area they could not bring along the installation), and loss of interest.
The main outcome of the study was to set a pilot biogas programme in four regions, over 5 years, estimated at €11 million, and use the results of this programme to determine Ethiopia’s future in the biogas sector. Further recommendations in terms of market oriented approach, reduction of investment costs, quality management, selection programme partners, etc. are provided in the report.
The National Biogas Programme (NBP) in Ethiopia has set the goal to install 14,000 domestic biogas plants within a 5 year period and attach toilets to at least 50% of the installations to improve health conditions. The construction and connection of toilets to domestic biogas plants have many benefits and attaching toilets should be based on the biogas user’s willingness. Physical obstacles are associated with physical or chemical changes to the methanogenesis process or the effluent; and to health risks, which will increase with the introduction of human excreta as substrate. Non-physical obstacles are presumably related to social, cultural, religious or economic issues.
This study aims to widen the understanding of obstacles and incentives concerning the integration of sanitation to domestic biogas plants in Ethiopia by investigating biogas users’ conceptions and attitudes. Urban or rural conditions, occupation, income and other family conditions may be important as well as agricultural conditions, geographical conditions, and cultural and religious backgrounds. The study also gives a brief description of the physical prerequisites such as the effects on the methanogenesis process and the prerequisites for utilization of slurry. A qualitative case study methodology including the use of a semi-constructed interview form and a simple attitude measurements questionnaire was applied for research in field; and nine in-depth interviews with both rural and urban biogas users were conducted in different regions in Ethiopia.
National Biogas Programme Ethiopia: Programme Implementation Document (2008).
This study presents an implementation project document for the set-up of a National Biogas Programme (NBP) in Ethiopia, as a result of the high potential of the country in the biogas sector (feasibility study concluded that more than one million households qualified for biogas installation).
Study findings indicated that the average investment cost for a biogas plant amounts to €602. In order to encourage farmers to invest in biogas installation a contribution to construction cost is to be provided (€193) which would also increase the internal rate of return to 29%. Self-help and micro-financing form the remaining of the financing plan.
The required functions in order to develop the biogas sector include promotion and marketing (e.g. Government institutions, NGOs, private sector, mass media, microfinance institutions and cooperatives would be mobilized for promoting biogas), training (e.g. focus on both supply and demand side), quality management (e.g. rigorous quality control regarding plant sizing, construction, after-sale service, and user training), research and development (e.g. cost reduction of biogas installations), monitoring and evaluation (e.g. overall monitoring responsibility to be assigned to Ethiopian Rural Energy Development Centre-EREDPC), institutional support (based on proposals submitted to concerned parties), extension (e.g. slurry extension programme to be initiated), and gender mainstreaming (e.g. involving women in programme’s decision-making). The EREDPC and the Mines and Energy Agencies (MEA) are the leading parties in the implementation. The proposed contributors to the programme are rural households, federal and regional governments, external donors and SNV/Ethiopia.
SNV’s approach is to support the development of the NBP/Ethiopia and to build adequate capacity in the biogas sector within 5 years. Without excluding other sector stakeholders, SNV will primarily provide support to EREDPC, the National Biogas Programme Coordination Office, the regional Mines and Energy Agencies, and the regional Biogas Programme Coordination Offices.
The progress report is structured along the SNV result chain approach and is in line with the PID, EREDPC/SNV Cooperation Agreement, SNV Assignment Agreement, and with ABPP reporting requirements. This progress report is compatible with the reporting requirements by the Government of Ethiopia.
The basis of reporting is the content of the Assignment Agreement, which is following the result chain logic of SNV. For this a special monitoring format has been develop to present a comprehensive overview. This can be found in the table presented in the report, followed by a brief explanation in the chapters that follow; milestones & monitoring system, issues and solution, LCB work, knowledge and network brokering, report on NBPE activities, and the financial status.
Although good progress is made, the implementation of the 2009_1 period has not been as planned. Due to the introduction of the new working procedure within GoE (named BPR) most of planned activities experienced delay with frequent absence of staff trained ion biogas and key decision makers including the director general of EREPDPC.
The brochure is a compilation of various case studies illustrating the impact of SNV's work in the life of millions of people in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, DR Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
It portrays the approaches and methods used by SNV to empower local communities, businesses and organisations to break the cycle of poverty by providing them with the tools, knowledge and connections they need to increase their incomes and gain access to basic services.
Building of a quality biodigester not only requires good knowledge and skills on the part of the constructor and the mason, but also effective supervision of installation and post-installation activities on behalf of a supervisor. To safeguard the quality, it is important that effective quality control mechanisms are formulated and properly enforced.
In the process of building the capacity of local artisans (especially the masons and supervisors) by teaching them detail technical knowledge and skills on the construction methods and supervisions of the household Biogas Plant, a Training of Trainers (TOT) emerged as a needed component. The participants of this TOT are expected to organise and conduct technical training programs to masons and supervisors in the future.
The overall objective of the Demonstration phase is to introduce biogas technology and SINDHU biogas plants, as well as to build capacity of stakeholders, especially that of EREDPC and MEA to disseminate the technology including conducting quality training courses on Construction and Supervision of SINIDU (SINIDU) Biogas Plants and within selected private construction cooperatives to construct and supervise SINIDU biogas plants in Ethiopia, according to the quality standards formulated by NDBP.
This manual envisages helping the participants in imparting effective technical training programmes and preparing the participants as multi-skilled persons to construct/supervise the construction of biodigester as well as to promote the technology at the grass-roots level.