This publication compares the biofuels legislation in Latin America. It focuses on:
• Definition of biofuels;
• Authorities for the application of the laws;
• Duties of the enforcement authority;
• Blending of biofuels with fossil fuels;
• Procedure for mixing and distribution;
• Promotional arrangements and tax benefits;
• Promoting the use of biofuels;
• Priority sectors and approach;
• Environmental sustainability;
• Offences and penalties.
The report ends with clear conclusions.
Climate change is one of the urgent environmental problems faces the world, especially in developing countries like Honduras. The impact of climate changes has varying degrees in terms of socioeconomic and natural systems and therefore present a danger to the poorest sectors that depend on their environment and natural means of subsistence living. To achieve the emissions reduction targets, developing countries can make use of flexibility mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
In an effort to combat the effects of Climate Change Programme, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and SNV, with support from the Secretariat Natural Resources and Environment (SERNA), made available this scoping study, evaluation and opportunities of the CDM sector in Honduras. The main objective is to strengthen the positioning of Honduras on the issue of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions and the use of CDM development projects in the carbon market, also further optimization the capacity of the public and private sectors to access the carbon market and institutional strengthening on issues relating to procedures. This research is presented as a baseline study, mainly built on the results of a participatory process including stakeholders from different institutions related to CDM in Honduras.
This document, written in Spanish, presents a feasibility study conducted by SNV of the introduction of a domestic biogas programme in Honduras.
The study concludes that there is a big potential for the production of biogas in Honduras, but the introduction of a domestic biogas programme does not seem feasible right away. The lack of payment in rural areas (most digesters are subsidized), the absence of detailed information on the geographical potential of biogas production, the absence of knowledge about the current fuel wood consumption and domestic energy costs for rural households, generate doubts about the potential success of a national program of domestic biogas. However, the study found items that should be taken into consideration in the near future to verify the feasibility or a program.
The study concludes with main recommendations in which is stated that it is recommended to conduct a study of one to two years, which clarifies and corroborate the geographical distribution of the potential market for biogas production, obtains more reliable information on fuel wood consumption, identifies target groups. Amongst others based on this extra information you could implement a project to support the construction of 150 biogas digesters in conjunction with the Association Honduran Coffee Producers (AHPROCAFE) and the Foundation Merendon. Further, the most adequate financial mechanisms need to be defined, as well as the payment capacity of potential beneficiaries and the availability of rural credit.
This document presents a feasibility study conducted by SNV of the introduction of a domestic biogas programme in Nicaragua. The study concludes that the introduction of a domestic biogas programme in Nicaragua is feasible taken some factors into account. Those factors are described in the report.
The study recommends that the programme should be presented to actors, institutions and local NGO’s that could be interested in playing an important role in the implementation of the project. Further, it recommends that the mechanism of implementation and institutionalisation of a potential biogas programme should be defined. Also a proper operational plan should be formulated with the potential strategic partners of the programme. Lastly, it is important to define potential donors to co-finance the programme.
The report contains 9 chapters. After the introduction chapter 2 and 3 present the history and history of biogás of the country. Chapter 4 presents the methodology and the objectives. Chapter 5 looks at the market potential, while chapter 6 elaborates on the technical, socoal, environmental, economic and financial feasibility. Chapter 7 presents the justification and chapter 8 identifies the areas to start with and presents a suggested programme. Lastly, chapter 9 presents the conclusions and recommendations.
The goal of SNV-Latin America’s scenario project was to explore potential paths for economic development in Central America over the next 20 years with a particular emphasis on the models of organizing and supporting development initiatives. A scenario planning process was used to push beyond existing notions of roles, responsibilities, and solutions for development. With the help of nearly 70 participants from different sectors and countries, alternative models were more openly considered through interviews, research and workshops. The process was influenced by a key acknowledgment: that the region may have to respond to a very different set of global conditions outside the region, and newly emerging social and environmental conditions within the region, and as such, set different goals for development accordingly. To inspire scenarios that move beyond the conventional thinking, a number of broad “drivers of change” were identified by looking at social, technological, economic, environmental and political dynamics that might cause disruptive shifts in regional conditions. These included: population growth, information and communications technologies, environmental degradation, and excluded groups. The combination of these and other drivers of change and uncertainties framed and informed the scenarios.
Peru possesses a large potential for biofuel production. In that context, the Peruvian government approved the Law for the Promotion of Biofuel Markets and subsequent regulations, with mandatory blending of biodiesel and ethanol. Given the proposed change in the Peruvian energy matrix, SNV together with the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) implemented a project to analyse the socioeconomic and environmental risks and benefits caused by the production of biofuels and energy crops in (agricultural areas within) the Peruvian Amazon.
In the environmental impact study, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for biofuel production was conducted. The LCA considered energy efficiency and Green House Gas (GHG) reduction besides other environmental aspects such as soil use and degradation and use of fertiliser and pesticides. The scenarios that proved to have a positive environmental impact in the agricultural stage are cultivation of Oil palm and Jatropha on already deforested lands with scarce vegetation. Production of biodiesel from Oil palm and Jatropha causing large scale deforestation (and therefore significant GHG emissions) was confirmed to be environmentally unsustainable.
These results were discussed with relevant stakeholders and presented at several events at local, national and international level. Hence, the results contribute to policy making and improved practices for a sustainable and inclusive development of the biofuels sector.