This report evaluates the management of bio-slurry, as well as its effect on soil fertility and crop production in Bangladesh by studying bio-slurry and slurry compost. The main institutions involved in the project were the Soil Science Division (SSD) and On Farm Research Division (OFRD) of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI).
Study findings indicated that the nutrient content of both cow dung (CD) slurry and poultry manure (PM) slurry were higher than the aerobically decomposed cow dung and poultry manure. Further, cobalt, nickel, cadmium and arsenic content of cow dung & poultry manure and their bio slurry were within the safe limit.
Two on-stations experiments were conducted to assess the performance of bio-slurry on yield, and nutrient uptake of cabbage and cauliflower. The results showed higher yield of cauliflower and cabbage when treated with bio-slurry. Further, nutrient uptake was higher in both organic and inorganic fertiliser treated plot compared to no-fertiliser treated plot. Field experiments were used to measure the effect of bio-slurry on different crops (tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, maize, boro rice and wheat), where results showed that slurry has indeed a positive impact on the crops. Further, the yield of the crops was significantly influenced by the different nutrient management options used.
The overall conclusion of the report is that bio-slurry can significantly help in reducing the fertiliser crisis around the world and in improving crop performance. The report presents detailed results from the on-station and field experiments per crop and location respectively.
This document presents basic information about biogas technology in the form of Biogas Digest Volume 4. The document contains 19 sections on different countries and regions. They are respectively:
• Biogas technology in Bangladesh
• Biogas technology in Belize
• Biogas technology in Bolivia (region Chochabamba)
• Biogas technology in Burundi
• Biogas technology in China (Sichuan)
• Biogas technology in Columbia
• Biogas technology in India
• Biogas technology in Orissa (India)
• Biogas technology in Sangli (India)
• Biogas technology in the Ivory Coast (region of Korhogo)
• Biogas technology in Jamaica
• Biogas technology on Java (province of Central Java)
• Biogas technology in Kenya
• Biogas technology in Morocco (region of Souss-Massa)
• Biogas technology in Nepal
• Biogas technology in Tanzania
• Biogas technology in Thailand
• Biogas technology in Tunisia (Sejenane, El Kef)
• Biogas technology in Vietnam
This report presents the results of the Biogas User Survey conducted in 2007 in Bangladesh. The National Domestic Biogas and Manure Programme (NDBMP) in Bangladesh was implemented from September 2006. NDBMP aims to construct 60,000 high quality domestic biogas plants by the end of 2010 throughout the country. The Infrastructure Development Company Ltd (IDCOL), an implementation partner, needed to conduct this Biogas User Survey in order to know the effectiveness and appropriateness of the biogas plants as well as their impact on livelihood, health, sanitation, environment, etc.
The biogas user survey was a descriptive study. It was conducted in the community of biogas users where biogas plants were installed from September 2006 to the end of June. The multi-stage systemic random sampling was used for selecting the sample districts. The sample plants were selected for accomplishing the study from 10 randomly selected districts and the sample size was 50. Other than these user households, 20 non-user households were also interviewed for assessing the need for biogas plants in the community.
The study had the scope to find out the project impact on health, sanitation and socio-economic conditions, the physical status, functionality, operation and maintenance of the plants, user satisfaction and perception of both users and non-users, non-user demand for biogas, and impact on agriculture, energy, emission reduction and environment and on gender sensitivity. In addition to local impacts, the survey has also provides information to evaluate the World environmental impacts of biogas plants.
This report assesses the impacts of biogas on energy, health and sanitation, agricultural systems, technical, socio-economic, environmental and gender concerns as reported by the survey conducted among 105 biogas plants in Bangladesh by the National Domestic Biogas and Manure Programme (NDBMP) program. World environmental impact is also evaluated. Based on the extensive survey (view annex) and interviews (e.g. Focus Group Discussions indicated many advantages and disadvantages) this report provides comprehensive suggestions for improvement and recommendations to the NDBMP.
The Infrastructure Development Company Ltd (IDCOL) together with the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) and German Credit Institution of Reconstruction (KfW) started NDBMP, where program’s ultimate goal is to construct 60,000 biogas plants in Bangladesh by the end of 2010. From the survey it appears that all participants use biogas for cooking and only one for both cooking and lighting. Regarding the workability of the biogas plant the results are optimistic with 85.7% fully satisfied users and the rest partially satisfied mainly because the produced gas is less than the demand. The total time saved per day per plant amounts to 1.5hr and the average saved money per plant falls between Tk.5,333-Tk.12,267.
All respondents found that bio-slurry has increased soil fertility. As for the Social and HH Environment, it is evident that after the installation of BP respiratory smoke, typhoid, tuberculosis and eye infections are dramatically reduced. As expected, females dominate in extracting the benefits from biogas use. Further, because the methane reduces GHG potential 21 times (GWP), it qualifies for Programmatic CDM.
The main objective of the Biogas Users‟ Survey 2009 is to make a comprehensive assessment of the impacts of biogas plants installed during the year 2009 on energy, health and sanitation, agricultural systems, socio-economic, environmental and gender; and evaluation of various technical aspects of biogas plants installed. Specific objectives of the survey are to assess the socio-economic condition of the biogas users; to gather reliable data on different issues of biogas plants and their satisfaction level and perception of the plant users; to assess the impact of the use of biogas on health and sanitation, agriculture, gender, energy uses and environment. To accomplish the task a total of 500 biogas plants were selected and thoroughly investigated through personal interview; opinions of the plant owners were collected on different aspects of the effectiveness of BPs by face to face interview. Following the terms of reference, the study team has selected 500 households from all over Bangladesh through applying two-stage cluster sampling procedures.
Survey chapters include:
• Demographic and socio-economic characteristics
• Construction, operation and maintenance of biogas plants
• Construction cost and financing of biogas plant
• Operation and maintenance services
• Status of some biogas plant components
• Functional status of biogas plants
• Users’ satisfaction with biogas plants
• Impact on cooking time saving
• Impact on gender
• Impact on agriculture and livestock management
• Impact on bio-slurry management and use
• Impact on environment
• Impact on health
• Findings of FGDs and KIIs
Report ends with lessons learnt, conclusions and recommendations.
The Annual Biogas Users’ Survey is a comprehensive assessment of the impact of the biogas plants installed in the year 2010 on energy, health and sanitation, and agricultural systems as well as technical, socio-economic, market, environmental and gender concerns. The methodology used for this survey consisted mainly of quantitative data collection and analysis. The main source of data is a questionnaire survey conducted on 300 biogas using households (annex 1).
The survey structure includes:
• Information on biogas users & plants (sizes, daily use, construction, operation & maintenance, financing);
• Impact on health and sanitation;
• Impact on socio-economic conditions (time, money, education);
• Gender implications of the impact of biogas on users;
• Impact on agriculture;
• Energy, emission reduction and environmental impact;
• Service quality and client satisfaction (financial services, client satisfaction);
• Market (potential, challenges, marketing of bio-slurry).
The recommendations state that there is a need for reviewing the role of the service providers in the field, i.e. the partner organizations. Also, an appropriate and sufficient supervision and monitoring system should be in place by the implementing agency (IDCOL) to make sure that the services provided in the field comply with the standards set at the programme level. Comfortable financial arrangements for biogas users are needed, so the current structure needs review. Greater attention should be also given to improving the training for the biogas users and better diffusion of knowledge on marketing of bio-slurry should be initiated. Essential is also the popularising of biogas through the vibrant media of Bangladesh to create mass awareness.
Feasibility of a national programme on domestic biogas in Bangladesh (2005).
This study evaluates the feasibility of establishing a National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) in Bangladesh (field visits, workshops, etc.).
Because of the rich history of the country in domestic biogas, the clear interest of (potential) stakeholders, the high technical potential and financial viability (investment subsidy present as well as a satisfactory financial rate of return-FIRR of 15% for the farmer), the study concluded that the establishment of a NBDP was highly feasible and recommended. The biogas farmers, Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS), Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) and the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) were the proposed financiers of the programme.
The recommendations developed as a result of the feasibility study included the need for SNV to shortly register itself as an International Non-Governmental Organisation (INGO) and to select an implementation partner. Further, the two organisations needed to prepare an implementation document in cooperation with all potential stakeholders in the country, and to seek immediate approval of the document. Among the potential risks identified with setting-up the programme were the long time period required to establish the programme (such process was establish to take about six months), as well as the absolute need for the NBDP to get full support from GoB in order to fully develop the programme and to meet the
assigned goals (development of a commercially viable market oriented biogas industry, stimulation of internalisation of all benefits of the biogas plants, optimisation of plant operation and use of bio-slurry, etc).
International workshop on financing of domestic biogas plants: country paper for Bangladesh.
This paper touches upon the different approaches of financing biogas plants and their implications in Bangladesh. After creating the first biogas plant, efforts were undertaken by EPCD, BCSIR, DANIDA, LGED, DLS and Grameen Bank of which the largest dissemination came from BCSIR - 21,858 plants constructed.
The National Domestic Biogas and Manure Programme (NDBMP) is established to target the potential 950.000 households, who meet the requirements for using biogas. Until 1994 biogas plants were financed by subsidy where BCSIR presented the concept of owner’s equity and subsidy was limited to Taka 7,500 per plant. IDCOL-SNV biogas program created a soft-credit approach in financing plants, where subsidy is Taka 7,000, household contribution is 15% of the plant cost and the rest is a micro-credit loan from MFIs at a flat rate of 10-14%. Similar approaches were undertaken by GTZ and GoB. The previous BCSIR and LGED models had higher subsidy component, needed higher equity investment and no credit facility was attached. The current IDCOL-SNV program has a credit component attached, which makes biogas technology affordable to mass people. Subsidy, however, has been reduced significantly, plant cost has doubled, making credit terms less attractive. The base analysis for saved biomass shows a financial internal rate of return (FIRR) of 13,52% which is lower than the 17% expected.
This report recommended linking subsidy to plant owners with revised plant construction costs and credit terms to offer working capital finance to small MFIs creating Sustainable Energy Fund using carbon credit.
This Practice Brief highlights various approaches used to promote gender equality in the agriculture; water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); and renewable energy (RE) sectors in Asian countries. SNV Asia has provided extensive capacity-building support in these sectors while putting ‘inclusive development’ at the forefront of the development agenda. The Practice Brief is an attempt to document practices from the field based on successful experiences of SNV in Bhutan, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Nepal and Vietnam. It aims to be a quick reference for development practitioners (within and outside SNV) who are committed to mainstream gender in these three sectors.
The purpose of this Institute for Sustainable Development (ISD) pilot project is to encourage the use of homestead biogas technology in Tentulia district, Bangladesh. The ISD provided the possibility to acquire a homestead biogas plant without any cash down-payment and to use cow dung and bioslurry as a reimbursement mechanism. Once the beneficiaries reimburse the plants, they can continue to sell slurry and their biogas plant will become an income generating asset. This is the first time in Bangladesh that homestead biogas plants are built with the express purpose of becoming regular income generating asset through the sale of bioslurry.
This initiative is made possible through a unique partnership with a private sector actor: Kazi and Kazi organic tea estate. It is purchasing the cow dung and slurry from the biogas plant owners, due to its large need for organic fertiliser.
The study also sheds new light on the broader motivations for acquiring biogas plants; in particular regarding the barriers to acquiring biogas plants and indicators to better determine potential biogas plant owners.
ISD hopes that by creating a nexus where private sector needs for bio-fertiliser is the driving force, it can create a synergistic relationship between relevant stakeholders in the area whereby organic agriculture, green energy and social development are all mutually reinforced. This project has facilitated the first two (with 3 more requested) homestead biogas plants for individual households in the area and created a brand new market for bio-slurry in the process.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, in association with National Domestic Biogas and Manure Program (NDBMP) Bangladesh, organized a four-day International Bio-slurry Workshop and Study Tour in Bangladesh during 10-13 November, 2008. Fourteen participants from 6 countries of
Asia and Africa participated in the workshop and study tour.
The overall objective of the study tour is to enhance the exchange of knowledge and experience among bio-slurry extension officers in SNV supported programmes, with a focus on bio-slurry quality exchange, management and utilization approaches and methods, identification of the most successful extension methods/vehicles in the different programmes, and optimisation of bio-slurry extension activity plans.
This proceeding includes:
• Summary of country reports with regards to the status of bio-slurry management and utilization, limitations and future plan of the countries Vietnam, Lao PDR, Rwanda, Nepal, Ethiopia, Cambodia, Bangladesh
• Field visit experience
• Group discussions on further issues related to organizational management and research, training and extension of bio-slurry.
The international study tour has been instrumental in providing an organized platform for those working in the domestic biogas sector in different countries to share best practices on bio-slurry use at the micro level, and to identify potential stimulus as well as barriers to further optimize the use of bio-slurry.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, with the financial support of the Netherlands Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS), organised a two-day international workshop on ' the Financing of Domestic Biogas Plants' during the period 23-24 October, 2008. The workshop conducted in Bangkok, Thailand, was attended by 68 participants from 21 different countries in Asia, Africa, Central America and Europe.
The overall objective of the international workshop was to exchange a maximum of information about the use of financial instruments for financing domestic biogas plants among the participants, practitioners, bankers, researchers and policy makers, and to arrive at clear status of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the use of the various financial instruments among the participants.
This brief report summarises the purpose, schedule, presentations and outcome of discussions related to the workshop. The workshop proceeding includes the summary of plenary presentations, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis carried out by the participants on different aspects of financing domestic biogas plants (e.g. investment subsidy and credit).
Further there was a presentation of country papers by participants of China, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Rwanda. Additionally, two papers on carbon credit and financing biogas plants were presented. Finally, Country action plans were prepared by respective participants. The evaluation results clearly indicated that the workshop has been highly successful in achieving its objectives.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, in association with the Dutch Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS), organised a two-day international workshop on 'Use of Bio-slurry from Domestic Biogas Plants' during the period 27-28 September, 2006.
The workshop was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and attended by 51 participants from 13 different countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. The objective was to create an organised platform for experts working in domestic biogas sector in different countries to share best practices on the use of bio-slurry at micro level and to identify potential stimulus as well as barriers to further optimise the use of bioslurry.
This workshop proceeding is intended to transfer the ideas and views of those attending the workshop to a wider audience of bio-slurry practitioners.
It is expected that this proceeding will contribute to the broader ongoing discussions about programmes and activities that will facilitate the inclusion of effective use of bio-slurry in initiatives on promotion and development of biodigester technology in different parts of the globe.
This workshop proceeding includes:
• Summary of country presentations of China, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Vietnam on the status of bio-slurry application;
• Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis carried out by the participants on the different aspects of use of bio-slurry;
• Country action plans prepared by respective participants on popularising the use of bioslurry as an organic fertiliser.
As much as possible, the issues raised by the participants during different sessions have been presented in their own words.
The seventh meeting of the experts’ network was organised in Hanoi, Vietnam, during the period April 8-9, 2009. This meeting of experts followed the internal Biogas/Renewable Energy Team Meeting of SNV Asia Region.
The overall objective of the meeting of the network of experts was to share the lessons learned, and to discuss possibilities for improvement on the training activities related to domestic biogas programmes. The discussion focussed particularly on the weaknesses/problems or evident successes of the training activities conducted so far by the different biogas programmes, and the possible solutions to overcome the problems, as well as prospects to share the success. The key
question was: how to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of all biogas and bio-manure related training activities?
This external network meeting on domestic biogas consisted of a field visit to provincial biogas office and biogas households in Ha Tay Province near Hanoi (8th April), and a working meeting on biogas training activities (9th April 2009). An overview and evaluation of training activities under biogas programmes in China, Nepal, Vietnam, Cambodia and Bangladesh was given. Further, there were group discussions, presentations and plenary discussions held.
Third meeting of network of experts on domestic biogas quality control: a brief overview of activities and
outcome of discussions (2007).
Under the framework of one of its major specific objectives to establish strategic partnerships with relevant institutes in Asia by creating a regional network of partners in biogas, ABP/SNV has instituted a regional network of experts working in the field of domestic biogas technology. The first and second meetings of the network members were held in Hanoi, Vietnam and Bangkok, Thailand respectively in April and September 2006. The third meeting of network of experts was
organised in Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period March 26-27, 2007.
The overall objective of the meeting was to create an organised platform for experts working in domestic biogas sector in different countries to share best practices on Quality Control of the technology-dissemination activities at the meso and micro levels. This brief report summarises the purpose, schedule, country presentations and outcome of discussions related to the Third Meeting of Network of Experts on Domestic Biogas.
Highlights of the meeting were: a field visit to under-construction biogas plants for quality check; and operational biogas plants for effect monitoring, the presentation of country papers on quality control, group work and presentation on core quality issues, and a progress overview (plan of action as set in Hanoi and Bangkok meetings).
Implementation plan National Domestic Biogas and Manure
Programme in Bangladesh (2006).
This study discusses the different aspects of the implementation plan prepared for the National Domestic
Biogas and Manure Programme (NDBMP) after conducting a feasibility study that concluded Bangladesh as a high potential country in the biogas sector. The implementation plan is the outcome of intensive discussions, field visits, consultations, and review of past biogas programmes.
NDBMP’s main goal is to further develop and disseminate biogas plants in the rural areas of Bangladesh to establish a sustainable biogas sector. Integration of environmental conservation strategy into national poverty alleviation strategies has also been emphasized in order to alleviate poverty through savings on energy expenditure, increase in agriculture production by maximum utilization of bio-slurry, creating local employment opportunities, etc. The Infrastructure Development Company ltd. (IDCOL) is to implement the programme by establishing a Biogas Programme Office by involving various partners: construction
companies, finance institutions, NGOs, Governmental departments and private consultants, where the total budget of the programme amounts to €14.9 million.
Regarding the implementation strategy, it has been recommended to promote the fixed-dome design of biogas plant as it is more efficient and durable. Further, biogas plants can easily be connected with direct income generation through integrating it with agriculture, fisheries and livestock initiatives. Slurry has to be used properly as composted organic fertilizer to increase crop and vegetable production. Other implementation strategies include enforcement of strict quality control system, encouraging toilet connection with biogas, institutionalization and strengthening of biogas companies for commercialization, repair and maintenance of already constructed but non- functioning plants.