This article describes the biogas activities in Asia by highlighting the success stories of China, India, and Nepal. Further, the article describes the scaling up of the Asia Biogas Programme. Vietnam is highlighted and the National Biogas and Manure Programme in Nepal is described, as well as the Biodigester Support Programme in Cambodia. Further, the article continues with CDM as a financing instrument.
The report concludes that it is most unfortunate that the reference to projects that replace nonrenewable biomass has been removed from the small-scale CDM methodologies. It is of hope that alternative methods for calculating emission reductions for small-scale project activities that propose the switch from non-renewable to renewable biomass will become available soon.
This document presents basic information about biogas technology in the form of Biogas Digest Volume 4. The document contains 19 sections on different countries and regions. They are respectively:
• Biogas technology in Bangladesh
• Biogas technology in Belize
• Biogas technology in Bolivia (region Chochabamba)
• Biogas technology in Burundi
• Biogas technology in China (Sichuan)
• Biogas technology in Columbia
• Biogas technology in India
• Biogas technology in Orissa (India)
• Biogas technology in Sangli (India)
• Biogas technology in the Ivory Coast (region of Korhogo)
• Biogas technology in Jamaica
• Biogas technology on Java (province of Central Java)
• Biogas technology in Kenya
• Biogas technology in Morocco (region of Souss-Massa)
• Biogas technology in Nepal
• Biogas technology in Tanzania
• Biogas technology in Thailand
• Biogas technology in Tunisia (Sejenane, El Kef)
• Biogas technology in Vietnam
The overall objective of a domestic biogas programme is the dissemination of domestic biodigesters as an indigenous, sustainable energy source through the development of a commercial, market oriented biodigester sector. Revenue from carbon trading is sought to achieve this objective, because the technology reduces GHG emissions. This project design document form, describes the small-scale project activities of Hubei Eco-Farming Biogas Project Phase I.
The project aims to demonstrate innovative technical approaches and a credible carbon trade process for a household-based Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) biogas digester program. Through developing, building, and putting into operation biogas digesters utilizing pig manure as raw material, the project will reduce the greenhouse gas emission (GHG). In addition, the project will improve the local rural environment and household living conditions, including household health. The project area covers 625 villages in 81 townships in the 8 counties of Enshi, Lichuan, Jianshi, Badong, Xuan’en, Xianfeng, Laifeng and Hefeng counties.
It provides a technical description with an estimated reduction of emissions over the chosen crediting period, application of baseline and monitoring methodology including baseline development, project boundary, and a description of how the anthropogenic emissions of GHG by sources are reduced below those that would have occurred in the absence of the registered small-scale CDM project activity. The report focuses on different barriers and emission reductions. The application of a monitoring methodology, description of the monitoring plan, activity/crediting period, environmental impacts, and stakeholders’ comments are also described.
This paper looks in depth into the current status of domestic biogas in China, where the National Loan Subsidy Program (NLSP) is responsible for nearly half of the funding for the National Biogas Programme (NBP). Various case studies confirmed the positive impact of the biogas programme not only in terms of cooking and lighting but also on environment, sanitation, ecology and agricultural level.
The study presents an in-depth SWOT analysis of the financial instrument (investment subsidy) where one of the main strengths appeared to be the centralization of the programme managed by the government as it allowed for extension of biogas technology and guaranteed financing for sustainable development. Further, the rural energy, sanitation and ecology situation was tremendously improved which was another of the many benefits listed. On the other hand, the quick development by the government in domestic biogas extension was likely to bring problems of digester construction quality because of the insufficient fermentation of raw materials. The main opportunities NBP presented were the use of a carbon rebate (CDM) as a very strong promoter to improve the instrument functioning and bring more benefits in economy, as well as the exchange of information and international cooperation with internal and external parties. The change of government policy exhibited itself as the main threat to the financing instrument. Slow-down of the speed of the rapid growth of the domestic biogas programme was also necessary for quality control of construction and manufacture of biogas appliances, as well as for post services.
The objective of the mission was to identify and assess potential organisations in China willing and capable to be engaged as Knowledge Institute or Implementing Partner Organisation in the Working Group (WG) on Domestic Biogas under the Energy for All Partnership, initiated by the Asian Development Bank; SNV leads a WG on Domestic Biogas, aiming to install one million domestic biogas plants in Asia.
Ten organisations were visited: Ministry of Agriculture (MoA), China Biogas Society, China Association of Rural Energy Industry (CAREI), Institute of Energy, Environment & Economy of the Tsinghua University in Beijing, World Environmental Institute (GEI), Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture (BIOMA), Sichuan Provincial Rural Energy Office, Chongqing Rural Energy Office, Yunnan Provincial Rural Energy Working Station, and Yunnan Normal University/Solar Energy Research Institute.
The overall findings are:
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, with the financial support of the Netherlands Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS), organised a two-day international workshop on ' the Financing of Domestic Biogas Plants' during the period 23-24 October, 2008. The workshop conducted in Bangkok, Thailand, was attended by 68 participants from 21 different countries in Asia, Africa, Central America and Europe.
The overall objective of the international workshop was to exchange a maximum of information about the use of financial instruments for financing domestic biogas plants among the participants, practitioners, bankers, researchers and policy makers, and to arrive at clear status of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the use of the various financial instruments among the participants.
This brief report summarises the purpose, schedule, presentations and outcome of discussions related to the workshop. The workshop proceeding includes the summary of plenary presentations, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis carried out by the participants on different aspects of financing domestic biogas plants (e.g. investment subsidy and credit).
Further there was a presentation of country papers by participants of China, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Rwanda. Additionally, two papers on carbon credit and financing biogas plants were presented. Finally, Country action plans were prepared by respective participants. The evaluation results clearly indicated that the workshop has been highly successful in achieving its objectives.
The International Workshop on Inclusive Planning and Financing of National Programmes on Domestic Biogas in Asia was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from 10-12 November 2010.
The objective of the workshop was to provide a dedicated forum for the exchange of knowledge and experience on the inclusive planning and financing of national programmes on domestic biogas between international practitioners, experts and policy makers.
This workshop report provides an overview of the sessions and the following key questions discussed:
• What is required to execute the programmes in a qualified, integrated and sustainable manner?
• What will be the required budgets for biogas plants installation, sector development and international technical assistance?
• What are the short and medium term funding sources?
• What are the opportunities to establish a regional basket fund?
• Is carbon financing truly feasible?
• Which investments are required from the side of the farmers?
• To what extent can national and local governments provide financial support?
The report includes a programme schedule, list of participants and brief country reports resulting from the sessions.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, in association with the Dutch Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS), organised a two-day international workshop on 'Use of Bio-slurry from Domestic Biogas Plants' during the period 27-28 September, 2006.
The workshop was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and attended by 51 participants from 13 different countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. The objective was to create an organised platform for experts working in domestic biogas sector in different countries to share best practices on the use of bio-slurry at micro level and to identify potential stimulus as well as barriers to further optimise the use of bioslurry.
This workshop proceeding is intended to transfer the ideas and views of those attending the workshop to a wider audience of bio-slurry practitioners.
It is expected that this proceeding will contribute to the broader ongoing discussions about programmes and activities that will facilitate the inclusion of effective use of bio-slurry in initiatives on promotion and development of biodigester technology in different parts of the globe.
This workshop proceeding includes:
• Summary of country presentations of China, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Vietnam on the status of bio-slurry application;
• Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis carried out by the participants on the different aspects of use of bio-slurry;
• Country action plans prepared by respective participants on popularising the use of bioslurry as an organic fertiliser.
As much as possible, the issues raised by the participants during different sessions have been presented in their own words.
Over the past two decades Vietnam has achieved remarkable advances in its economic development, progressing from least developed country status to lower middle income, thus becoming one of Southeast Asia’s most rapidly industrializing countries. Vietnam’s geographical position, bordering with China, Laos and Cambodia on the West and the South China Sea on the East, has enabled larger trade of goods throughout the region. However, these results at the national level conceal significant geographical disparities and inequalities between the rural and urban inhabitants. Data indicates that poor people’s access to quality services in the areas of health, water, sanitation and education is still a concern.
This research proposed to analyze the impact of the Biogas Division Project in Vietnam, created in 2003 in collaboration with MARD and SNV. The study aimed at evaluating quantitative figures of biogas masons activity levels. Construction levels indicated that masons are extremely busy despite the seasonal effects of the job. Digester demand is on the high rise. 97% of masons said that they would continue construction levels if the program ceased from existing, confirming and ensuring the self-sufficiency of the biogas sector, something which SNV and BPD aimed to establish. Conclusively, BPD is recommended to upscale and sub-group mason business training programs to better adhere with their mason profiles. Improving training and educational programs will allow for the possibility of concrete SME development within a economically sound Biogas sector.
The seventh meeting of the experts’ network was organised in Hanoi, Vietnam, during the period April 8-9, 2009. This meeting of experts followed the internal Biogas/Renewable Energy Team Meeting of SNV Asia Region.
The overall objective of the meeting of the network of experts was to share the lessons learned, and to discuss possibilities for improvement on the training activities related to domestic biogas programmes. The discussion focussed particularly on the weaknesses/problems or evident successes of the training activities conducted so far by the different biogas programmes, and the possible solutions to overcome the problems, as well as prospects to share the success. The key
question was: how to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of all biogas and bio-manure related training activities?
This external network meeting on domestic biogas consisted of a field visit to provincial biogas office and biogas households in Ha Tay Province near Hanoi (8th April), and a working meeting on biogas training activities (9th April 2009). An overview and evaluation of training activities under biogas programmes in China, Nepal, Vietnam, Cambodia and Bangladesh was given. Further, there were group discussions, presentations and plenary discussions held.
The fifth meeting of network of experts was organised in Vientiane, Lao PDR, during the period April 3-4, 2008. This meeting of experts followed the internal Biogas/Renewable Energy Team Meeting of SNV Asia Region.
The overall objective of the meeting of the network of experts was to present and discuss possibilities for the improvements of the biogas appliances being used under the frameworks of different biogas programmes. The key question was: what are the major areas of enhancement of appliances to improve their efficiency, and what are the possible methods/mechanisms to do so?
This brief report summarises the purpose, schedule, presentations and outcome of discussions related to the fifth meeting of the SNV external biogas network.
Main activities of the meeting schedule included:
• Field visit to Vientiane Capital
• Presentation by Jeroen van Bruggen on carbon strategies for domestic biogas programmes
• Discussion, meeting and dinner with Lao biogas stakeholders and SNV/Lao PDR.
• Presentation by Dr. A.K. Kurchania, Professor and Head of the Department of Renewable Energy Sources, Udaipur, India, on the results and recommendations of the testing of biogas stoves and lamps by three institutes (Netherlands, China and India).
• Plenary discussion on the results and recommendations of the testing of biogas stoves and lamps by three institutes (Netherlands, China and India).
Group discussions, presentations and plenary discussion on functioning and possible improvement of biogas stove (including tap) and lamp, mixer device, dome gas pipe, main gas valve, water drain, pressure indicator and pipes & fittings.
This report analyses the benefits of China´s family-size bio-digesters. Like many other Asian countries China also has its own renewable energy programme.The construction of 14 million family-size anaerobic bio-digesters in China is thought to have improved the farm economy of many rural households in China. The general view is that the use of a bio-digester will positively contribute to rural household income by reduction of expenditures on fuels and on fertilizers and pesticides, freeing up income that can be spent otherwise. The effect of using the residue of the digestion process is believed to increase farm produce also. This report shows that sound empirical support for these beliefs is, however, absent. Through a survey carried out for users and nonusers in three villages (two in the Gansu province and one in the Sichuan province) the report shows that the effects of the use of bio-digesters on the farm economy are often small if not non-existent: money saved on energy expenditures are small and not significant, savings on fertilizers and pesticides are absent, and the increase in farm income is also not significant and cannot be attributed to the use of the bio-digester.
However, the overall benefit is positive in all of the villages and with appropriate support, the benefits can be significantly improved. Furthermore, the bio-digester contributes considerably to a more convenient lifestyle and an improved indoor environment. The benefits are not measured in terms of money, rather much appreciated by those who invested in a bio-digester.
This document presents the monitoring report of the the small-scale project activities of Hubei Eco-Farming Biogas Project Phase I. The project aims to demonstrate innovative technical approaches and a credible carbon trade process for a household-based Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) biogas digester program. Through developing, building, and putting into operation biogas digesters utilizing pig manure as raw material, the project will reduce the greenhouse gas emission (GHG).
In addition, the project will improve the local rural environment and household living conditions, including household health. The project area covers 625 villages in 81 townships in the 8 counties of Enshi, Lichuan, Jianshi, Badong, Xuan’en, Xianfeng, Laifeng and Hefeng counties. The purpose of the monitoring report is to calculate and clarify the emission reductions achieved by this project activity for periodic verification. This monitoring report covers the activity from February 19 2009 to August 31 2009 as the 1st monitoring period.
Approved methodologies Version 12 of AMS-I.C titled “Thermal energy for the user with or without electricity” and Version 01 of AMS-III.R titled “Methane recovery in agricultural activities at household/farm level’ were applied. Further background on this project can be found in the Project Design Document (PDD) and associated documents, which is available on the UNFCCC website: http://cdm.unfccc.int/Projects/DB/TUEV-SUED1218669721.67/view.
This case study presents the ‘Development and Promotion of Biogas Utilization in Rural China (DPBURC)’ between 2006 and 2010. The budget amounted to RMB 40.07 billion (USD 6.27 billion). RMB 12.5 billion was provided by the Central Government, with the balance being co-funded by local governments and rural households.
Biogas plants provide multiple economic, social and environmental benefits to rural users. Aiming to realise these benefits, DPBURC demonstrated how joint government action at all levels can be instrumental in scaling up access to energy services. The project built 32 million biogas plants between 2001 and 2010, benefiting around 110 million rural people.
DPBURC was implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and the National Development and Reform Commission, in cooperation with 29 co-funding provincial governments. Strong government commitment, reflected in budgetary allocations, contributed to the large size of the project.
At project level, contributory measures included:
• Adoption of a series of operational regulations, technical codes and stringent quality-control measures;
• Adaptation of technology to local conditions;
• Direct financial support to the poor;
• Commercialisation through technical support to biogas appliance manufacturers, service providers (companies), technical staff and operators.
The project promoted the ‘One Digester Plus Three Renovations’ approach, which combined biogas digester construction with renovations of kitchens, toilets and animal sheds. In doing so, it maximised the social, economic and environmental impacts of the biogas digester technology. On average, each household using a biogas digester saves RMB 500 (USD 78.3) annually through the reduced use of fuel wood, electricity, chemical fertiliser and pesticides.
This study presents an overview of lamps and stoves samples testing conducted by three institutes: Chengdu Energy Environment International Cooperation (CEEIC), Chengdu in line with Biogas Appliances Quality Inspection Center of the Ministry of Agriculture, People's Republic of China; Department of Renewable Energy Sources (DRES), College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, India; and Kiwa Gastec
Certification (GASTEC). Stoves samples were obtained from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Lesotho, Nepal, Rwanda and Vietnam and lamps samples from Cambodia, Ethiopia, India and Nepal.
Study findings for both lamps and stoves are provided for each country individually. The general findings of the report indicated that no stove qualified for quality certification under both Chinese and Indian specifications. Further, the stove samples from Bangladesh and Cambodia have only met the minimal thermal efficiency standards. As for the lamps samples, the one from Cambodia performed better at CEEIC and DRES, while the lamp from India showed better luminous efficiency at GASTEC.
The study also discusses the main problems encountered with the stoves and the lamps, where some of the stoves problems include low heat flow (Bangladesh) and no air-intake (Cambodia & Bangladesh). Lamp problems included improper design (Ethiopia), small mud head (Nepal), etc. Based on the study findings specific recommendations were designed and presented in the report. For stoves, the most critical issue was the need for standardization of parts. Lamps recommendations included the necessary increase of burning area, increase in heat flow to improve thermal efficiency, etc.
This document presents a Project Design Document form (GS-VER-PDD) version 4 for China. This template of the PDD is applicable for micro-, small-, and large scale projects. The project activity is called Biogas Tanks in Guizhou Province in China, one of the poorest provinces in the southwest of China. The project activity has been implemented by a French NGO, Initiative Development. The purpose is to provide villagers in Weining district and Danzhai district a new, free and clean source of energy through the construction of the 8m3 biogas tanks for individual households. The villagers will be selected, according to their incomes, their livestock and their motivation to join the project and build a tank. The project will contribute to local development in many ways described in the report. The methodology is indicative programme, baseline, and monitoring methodology for Small Scale Biodigester Voluntary Gold Standard. Two different baselines were required for the two districts and the baseline scenario is the pre-project situation without suppressed demand. This report contains the following chapters:
1) General description project activity
2) Application of a baseline methodology
3) Duration of the project activity/ crediting period
4) Application of a monitoring methodology and plan
5) Estimation of GHG emissions by sources
6) Environmental impacts
7) Stakeholders’ comments
Information on how to complete the PDD and how to obtain Gold Standard registration can be found in the project developer’s manual available on the Gold Standard website.
This validation report is written by TÜV SUD to validate the project: Small scale CDM Project Hubei Eco-Farming Biogas Project Phase 1 with regard to the relevant requirements of the Gold Standard for Gold Standard VER project activities, as well as criteria for consistent project operations, monitoring and reporting.
The project assessment aims at being a risk based approach and is based on the methodology developed in the Validation and Verification Manual, an initiative of Designated and Applicant Entities, which aims to harmonize the approach and quality of all such assessments. In total the assessment team expressed one open issue, 8 Clarification Requests and 19 Corrective Action Requests. The review of the project design documentation and the subsequent follow-up interviews provided TÜV SÜD with sufficient evidence to determine the fulfillment of all stated criteria. In our opinion, the project meets all relevant UNFCCC requirements for the CDM.
Hence TÜV SÜD will recommend the project for registration by the CDM Executive Board in case letters of approval of all Parties involved will be available before the expiring date of the applied methodology(ies) or the applied methodology version respectively. Further, the analysis demonstrates that the proposed project activity is not a likely baseline scenario. Emission reductions attributable to the project are hence additional to any that would occur in the absence of the project activity. Given that the project is implemented as designed, the project is likely to achieve the estimated amount of emission reductions as specified within the final PDD version.