This country paper on Rwanda presents the manner in which financial aspects to help farmers get access to biogas technology were taken in consideration by developing a microfinance loan product. The study describes an investment subsidy, a carbon rebate, and a bank loan as the main mechanisms used to finance the biogas plants, where Banque Populaire du Rwanda was the main financial institution.
A comprehensive SWOT analysis of the current financial instruments is presented in this study (interviews, observations, and a desk study were conducted). It revealed that some of the main benefits were the motivation farmers got to invest in biogas (investment subsidy), ensured payment to the programme (carbon rebate), and low interest rates (bank loan). Among others, the main investment subsidy weakness was its fixed amount. Some of the drawbacks of the bank loan were the repayment risk associated, and for the carbon rebate that it was not easily understood. The opportunities associated with the both the subsidy and the bank loan included the ability to adjust the terms according to individual needs, and with the carbon rebates-investment from big companies. Threats existed as well: the real possibility for the subsidy to be lowered after the first phase, the methodology used for the carbon rebate was becoming obsolete, and for bank loans - that they relied on subsidised sources of finance in Rwanda.
Based on the SWOT analysis, thorough recommendations as to the next step in the biogas programme in Rwanda are presented.
This practice brief shares SNV's experiences in supporting pastoralists in Africa to improve their livelihoods. It bringstogether a wide variety of cases from across the continent that draw out a number of commonalities in pastoralist practices, for instance their management of water resources in Tanzania and Niger. But it highlights as well the diversity of the contexts within which pastoralism operates, as seen in the contrasting scales of dairy processing in Kenya, Niger and Burkina Faso, or the different roles played by local brokers in the livestock markets of Southern Sudan and Benin. Working with pastoralists has taught us that they are not the traditionalists they are often depicted to be. They are adapting to rapid change as much as any other group in Africa. This Practice Brief highlights a variety of adaptation strategies, commercialisation options and institutional arrangements that are currently in use. These diverse experiences demonstrate that SNV support has helped bring about tangible improvements in pastoralist livelihoods, whilst increasing their contribution to economic development in some of the most challenging environments in Africa today.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, with the financial support of the Netherlands Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS), organised a two-day international workshop on ' the Financing of Domestic Biogas Plants' during the period 23-24 October, 2008. The workshop conducted in Bangkok, Thailand, was attended by 68 participants from 21 different countries in Asia, Africa, Central America and Europe.
The overall objective of the international workshop was to exchange a maximum of information about the use of financial instruments for financing domestic biogas plants among the participants, practitioners, bankers, researchers and policy makers, and to arrive at clear status of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the use of the various financial instruments among the participants.
This brief report summarises the purpose, schedule, presentations and outcome of discussions related to the workshop. The workshop proceeding includes the summary of plenary presentations, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis carried out by the participants on different aspects of financing domestic biogas plants (e.g. investment subsidy and credit).
Further there was a presentation of country papers by participants of China, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Rwanda. Additionally, two papers on carbon credit and financing biogas plants were presented. Finally, Country action plans were prepared by respective participants. The evaluation results clearly indicated that the workshop has been highly successful in achieving its objectives.
This report presents the findings, conclusions and recommendations of a mission designed to investigate the National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) prospects in Rwanda. The key actors in the discussion were the Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS) of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs, German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), Ministry of Infrastructure (MININFRA), Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV/Rwanda), and the Royal Netherlands Embassy (RNE/Kigali).
In terms of the feasibility of NDBP, it was concluded that Rwanda is in great need of alternative technologies for cooking as the current consumption of wood is unsustainable. It was, therefore, determined that programmes for improved cook stoves and biogas plants were a viable combination. On a
similar note, it was recommended for MINIFRA and the proposed Rwanda National Energy Agency (ANER) to organize a workshop for assessing how programmes for cook stoves and biogas plants can benefit from each other. Further, the involvement of financial institutes offering attractive biogas credits would be crucial for the success of the programme. For the national prioritisation of the energy sector it was determined that developing such a sector has a vital role in reducing poverty and increasing economic development. Contractual agreement findings named ANER as a key player at national level, where GTZ would provide financial and technical assistance, SNV-capacity building services to NDBP through ANER, and MININFRA-funds and other required (policy) support. To avoid the gap between the demo phase and the rest of the programme, GTZ should enter into a temporary agreement with MININFRA for implementing NDPB.
The Rwandan dairy sub-sector has undergone dramatic and dynamic progress after the 1994 war and genocide. Of recent years a number of initiatives from the government, development partners and private investors have been growing. Although the dairy industry has been growing fast, its faced with a number of constraints that provide the challenges for development but equally provide the opportunities for actors who want to invest in the sub-sector.
This report summarises the trend for the last 10 years to 2020 along the national development strategy and how the dairy sub-sector can provide investment opportunities along the value chain. Dairy is a profitable and one of the best investments that can work properly in the rural areas due its benefits not only as a source of income but also as a way of providing food security and support of crop production through manure.
This Brief presents an overview of the current status and ongoing developments in the Joint Action Development Forum. Apart from some encouraging examples it also highlights the need for further practice and learning to achieve the full potential of the JADF.
This short document presents a case study about linking biogas technology to the market approach with the development of a well driven public private partnership. SNV’s main client is the National Domestic Biogas Programme, whose objective is to develop a commercial deployment of biogas technology. SNV has been designing, developing and supporting the programme since its introduction to Rwanda. The biogas business requires the development of a market with a well-coordinated private public business at levels. This case study highlights how public private partnership using a market approach is leading to sustainable economic development and improved business climate.
The results show that the private and public partnership has brought:
• A solid foundation to the realisation and setting of the programme;
• It influenced positively district performance contracts;
• The development of a sustainable market;
• It has reduced the direct implication of the programme as a public institution in the development of the market;
• A long-term demand for the product has been created and the operational structure is fixed;
• The report ends with an extensive lessons learned section and challenges and opportunities section.
Rwanda National Domestic Biogas Programme: mid term review (2009) 25 pages. - soon available -
The success or failure of any biodigester depends mainly upon the suitability of the design, site for construction and quality of construction works (including quality of construction materials and workmanship involved during construction). This booklet highlights the methods for selecting appropriate size and sites for construction, as well as steps of construction works related to the Modified GGC Model of Biogas Plant -2007, for Rwanda. This manual is prepared to assist the masons to successfully carry out their anticipated roles in constructing quality biodigesters.
Further, the report elaborates on masons’ responsibilities. The components of a biogas plant and the installation steps of biogas plants follow, including the selection of the correct size and construction site, the collection of construction materials and appliances, and the proper construction of the plant. The finishing work and users’ instructions are then described, followed by a thorough conclusion.
This study deals with the scope of the National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) in Rwanda, and more specifically serves as a reliable database on energy needs of rural integrated farming households. A survey was used to thoroughly assess individual households’ situation regarding energy, sanitation, health, environmental protection and agriculture, and income generation.
96.5% of surveyed households practiced subsistence or small scale market agriculture, and 99% of those used firewood for cooking fuel. However, 89% would use energy generated from animal and toilet waste for cooking and lighting, and bio-slurry as a fertiliser. Based on the survey results specific challenges and issues needing further attention were identified. NDBP activities included the introduction of biogas lamps in the programme and promotional campaigns at district level involving local authorities.
As for the selection criteria for potential implementation areas, it is important that the cattle keeping system is not the only indicator for the local biogas market potential, as even under zero grazing conditions the available biomass could be insufficient for a satisfying biogas production. For subsidies and micro-finance scheme, the efficient use of animal urine as mixing agent was said to play a key role to save water, together with rainwater harvesting. Further, a key priority for NDBP was to closely monitor the carbon credit market as it constantly develops and brings new opportunities. The rationale behind recommendations as well as detailed survey findings and future steps required can be found in the report.
Brochure which describes the partnership between SNV and FLO (Fairtrade International). In 2006, a unique partnership was born. Responding to the need for an integrated, market-based approach to the challenge of persistent poverty, SNV Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) and Fairtrade International (FLO) teamed up to help producers in the World South reach consumers worldwide via Fairtrade. As a result of the partnership, numerous farming communities in eleven African countries now benefit from expanded market access, increased production, employment and income, as well as broader social progress and greater control over their future.
This is the story of the partnership, the people involved and the progress made.