This document presents basic information about biogas technology in the form of Biogas Digest Volume 4. The document contains 19 sections on different countries and regions. They are respectively:
• Biogas technology in Bangladesh
• Biogas technology in Belize
• Biogas technology in Bolivia (region Chochabamba)
• Biogas technology in Burundi
• Biogas technology in China (Sichuan)
• Biogas technology in Columbia
• Biogas technology in India
• Biogas technology in Orissa (India)
• Biogas technology in Sangli (India)
• Biogas technology in the Ivory Coast (region of Korhogo)
• Biogas technology in Jamaica
• Biogas technology on Java (province of Central Java)
• Biogas technology in Kenya
• Biogas technology in Morocco (region of Souss-Massa)
• Biogas technology in Nepal
• Biogas technology in Tanzania
• Biogas technology in Thailand
• Biogas technology in Tunisia (Sejenane, El Kef)
• Biogas technology in Vietnam
An energy transition is required in Tanzania. Household energy needs are currently largely met by unsustainable wood fuel resources and many households experience energy poverty. The traditional strategies to introduce modern energy are slow and unable to reach households in inaccessible and poor areas.
To make an energy transition and to meet the energy demand in Tanzania in a sustainable way solar PV (photovoltaic), improved cook stoves (ICS) and biogas technologies were selected based on the appropriateness of the technologies in rural Tanzania and their sector development.
Moreover this study shows that sustainable energy provision requires a sector of independent enterprises that own the capacity to provide these appropriate energy technologies. Cluster strategies promote the development of groups of such enterprises. The institutional setting for such cluster strategies was found to rely on civil society organizations, mainly because the representation of the rural energy topic on the local level by district governments and public agencies is virtually absent.
Based on the research in Tanzania inceptive cluster strategies are reported and five types of cluster promotion are categorised. The research results point to cluster promotion through existing value chains as currently the most suitable strategy for achieving this goal. In rural Tanzania it makes economic sense to use the limited infrastructure to integrate energy provision and appropriate energy enterprises with existing business activities, such as diary and Jatropha production. The crux is to create the right institutional setting to develop the mutual benefits of sustainable energy provision for households and enterprises.
This annual report provides more detail of the strategic position choices SNV made in East and Southern Africa in 2007 and illustrates our approach with case studies from our practice.
Energy in Africa capability statement
Biogas: Viable or Not? An explorative study to the feasibility of introducing biogas and the impact on HHs’ livelihoods in the Northern regions of Tanzania (2007).
In the first part of the study an extended overview of the geographical context, the theoretical framework underlying the research, and the methodology used is presented. The report continues with an overview of the history of biogas is Tanzania with elaboration on its main actors, such as like SIDO, AATP, GTZ, CAMARTEC, ELCT, SUDURETA, HEIFER, ABC, PHCA, BSC, KAKUTE and FIDE. It continues with an evaluation of the present status of biogas, the socio-economic profile of users and non-users, a status and technical performance of the biogas plants and its appliances, and positive and negative lessons learned.
Further, the study evaluates the requirements that are needed for the introduction of biogas. These are divided in technical, socio-cultural, financial/economical and institutional requirements. A division is made between contextual and conditional factors. These factors were given a score according to their current status, where the scores show an overview of the feasibility of introduction of the technology.
In the third part the study looks at the impact of biogas on HH level and gives a future outlook. A comparison of theory and practice is presented, as well as the impact of biogas on HHs livelihoods.
The fourth and last part of the report present concluding remarks, looking at which initiatives and developments have occurred so far in Tanzania, the main contextual and conditional factors related to introduction of biogas, the impact of biogas on the livelihood of the HH, and the outlook for the future of biogas in Tanzania.
This study has been prepared with regard to the initiative “Biogas for Better Life – an African Initiative”. Tanzania suffers a severe energy crisis on all levels. In response to this, current governmental policies promote, amongst others, biogas as an alternative source of energy. Tanzania has a long history of biogas utilization since 1975. Several stakeholders are involved: from the local government, parastatal, research and religious organisations - to organisations in the private and financing sector, and NGOs. As a result, nearly 3,000 biogas plants have been constructed while most of them used subsidy to finance the construction. The majority have been of fixed dome design.
Some of the lessons learned from previous biogas projects carried out in Tanzania, are that biogas technology is relatively mature, it fits well with the livestock farming practices, it reduces deforestation, and it improves the life of users. The main barrier is the high cost involved. A turn-key 8 m³ biogas system (fixed dome design, including piping and appliances) in Tanzania costs about 1,200,000 TZS
Knowledge of biogas is limited to the general public, but where the concept is known, it is widely accepted, even in cases where a latrine is attached to the digester. In this study, a target group of at least 276,000 households has been identified and out of this group, about 102,000 customers have been identified as likely to invest in biogas within a national domestic biogas programme. Estimates on Tanzanian market possibilities to construct biogas digesters conclude that about 50,000 units may be built within ten years.
Formulation of Programme Implementation Document for domestic biogas programme in Tanzania: mission report on selection of biogas plant design and formulation of quality control framework and certification procedures for biogas constructors (2008).
This is a mission report on the selection of biogas plant design and formulation of quality control framework and certification procedures for biogas constructors. The main objective of the mission was to assist in the formulation of PID for the National Domestic Biogas Programme in Tanzania by:
• Selecting the most suitable design/model of biogas plants for wide-scale dissemination of the technology in Tanzania
• Formulating basic framework for quality management mechanism in general and quality control in particular, within the Biogas Programme
• Preparing general accreditation/certification modality for the participation of private sector constructors/manufacturers in Biogas Programme.
This report summarises the activities and outcomes of the mission. A main activities of the mission was the field visit with observations of biogas plants of different models/designs installed in different parts of Tanzania to assess physical status and functioning as well as quality of workmanship and visits to appliances manufacturing workshop and consult with the entrepreneur. Further, there was a constructors’ workshop with the selection of a standard appropriate design, size(s) and investment costs for household based on agreed criteria and performance factors. This was done by making an evaluation matrix. There was also a discussion on quality control and certification process for the private sector.
The mission has successfully been completed in the stipulated time frame. It has been effective and successful in selecting the most appropriate biogas plant model to be disseminated under the framework of the proposed national biogas programme.
This booklet reflects seven years of experience of the Biogas Extension Service (BES) of CAMARTEC (Centre for Agricultural Mechanization and Rural Technology) in Arusha/ Tanzania which was carried out in cooperation with Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn, FRG, as part of the Biogas Extension Programme and as part of the Special Energy Programme during 1983-1990. This publication is meant as a teaching aid in agricultural colleges and as a reference book for professionals working in the field of rural biogas extension. For that reason, the ideal set-up of a biogas unit is described. Biogas units have to be appropriate to the farmers’ condition. Therefore, the findings and conclusions reported must be seen in context with the geographical and socio-economic situation of the project area. For the coffee-banana-belt of Arumeru District of Tanzania the fixed dome plant is the most appropriate. It was difficult to come to a reliable structure and a user-friendly layout and design. The basic problems are solved, but minor improvements may still be possible. Beginners in biogas are advised to first follow the given standard design. A non-appropriate but functioning solution is still better than an appropriate one which does not work reliable.
The chapters of this booklet are respectively; Why biogas?; Explanation of terms; Biogas extension work; The agricultural biogas unit; Construction of the biogas plant; Construction of cattle stable; Construction of the pigsty; The sanitary biogas unit; Use of Slurry; Use of gas; Operation and maintenance; and Pending technical issues.
This factsheet contains information on SNV's improved cookstoves around the globe, as well as its partnership in the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, a public private initiative led by the UN Foundation.
This English written brochure describes the domestic biogas programme of Tanzania. It contains general information about Tanzania and Biogas with the history of biogas in Tanzania and the benefits of biogas. It also contains information about SNV’s approach to biogas with an explanation of the multi-stakeholder approach and the chosen digester design. Further it informs readers about the other stakeholders that are involved in the programme. Lastly the brochure provides the current goals of the programme in bullet points.
December 2008 saw the birth of the Africa Biogas Partnership Programme (ABPP). DGIS provides funds to support the national biogas programmes in six African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. This document is the PID document for Tanzania. This final draft Programme Implementation Document provides details on the scope, activities, institutional set-up, and related budget. The document describes the history of biogas in Tanzania since 1975 until present with the used technologies. SNV commissioned in cooperation with the Tanzania Biogas Task Force an assessment of the currently used technologies and designed the “Modified CAMARTEC Design”. Further it evaluates the technical potential, the economic attractiveness with EIRR, and the social acceptance.
The report also presents the goal, purpose and expected results, and provides output targets focussing on annual production of plants, quality control, training and the provision of after sales services by Biogas Construction Enterprises (BCEs). Further, the establishment of local Biogas Appliance Manufacturers will be supported.
Under institutional aspects the report divides the biogas sector into a demand and supply side. The core of the primary process is in the commercial interaction between the (prospective) biogas household and the Biogas Construction Enterprise. The functions of the Tanzania Biogas Programme Office (TBP office) are also explained, with CAMARTEC being the host organisation for the office.
Under activities and inputs the investment costs like plant construction costs, programme implementation costs and investment subsidy are described. Further, the activity schedule and budget are presented. The report ends with a SWOC analysis.
The SNV Domestic Biogas Newsletter provides interesting short articles on SNV-supported countries worldwide. The seventh issue (September 2012) presents:
• Production rate of biogas plants increased
• International workshop on domestic biogas in Asia
• SNV and FAO release Myanmar biogas feasibility study
• Rwanda: charging your phone with cow dung
• ISO certificate for Bangladesh biogas
• Renewed online Renewable Energy library launched
• Knowledge networking of domestic biogas in Asia
• Pakistan Domestic Biogas Programme newsletter released
• The Arusha Tale
• Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Vietnam
• Biodigester Programme wins first Energy for Life Award
• Innovative microcredits for Cambodian biogas users
The brochure is a compilation of various case studies illustrating the impact of SNV's work in the life of millions of people in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, DR Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
It portrays the approaches and methods used by SNV to empower local communities, businesses and organisations to break the cycle of poverty by providing them with the tools, knowledge and connections they need to increase their incomes and gain access to basic services.
This report presents the findings of a visit paid by the Biogas Practice Leader of SNV Netherlands Development Organisation to the proposed programme on domestic biogas in Tanzania. This visit took place from 8 -12 April 2008, aiming to inform the Tanzanian stakeholders on the state of affairs of the “Biogas for Better Life: an African Initiative to discuss the recently elaborated draft Terms of Reference (ToR) for the formulation of a detailed Programme Implementation Document (PID) on a national domestic biogas programme, and to jointly explore its possible funding; and to discuss the possible roles of the various (groups of) Tanzanian actors in the programme.
To facilitate the discussion about possible roles of the various (groups of) Tanzanian actors in the programme, a function model was presented with the activities required for national programmes on domestic biogas. The function model was found useful to discuss and clarify the possible roles of various
stakeholders. CAMARTEC has been accepted by all interviewed stakeholders to become the leading organisation in the biogas programme.
All meetings made clear that the proposed national programme on domestic biogas in Tanzania is relevant for the country. The feasibility study, stakeholder meetings (4x) and Task-Force meetings (9x) have raised a lot of interest, and time has come to embark on the next step: the formulation of the PID.