In Vietnam over two million families have piggeries that create a huge odour and waste problem. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) has partnered with the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) to develop a nation wide biogas programme, which is turning Vietnam’s waste problem into a source of clean energy.
This case study from the Ashden Award recognises to MARD and SNV their successful partnership which has enabled the large scale dissemination of domestic biogas technology to improve the quality of life for farmers in Vietnam. Chapters include:
3. Potential for growth and replication
4. Contact details
The “Support project to the Biogas Program for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Some Provinces in Vietnam “(Jan-2003 – Jan 2006) and now “Biogas program for the animal husbandry sector of Vietnam bridging phase 2006” is jointly managed by the Livestock Production Department (LPD) under Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and the Netherlands Development Organization Vietnam (SNV-VN), with the BPD as the executive project agency. The Project has covered 24 out of Vietnam’s 64 provinces, supporting the construction of about 28,000 biogas installations. One of the main objectives of the project is increasing the awareness of involved farmers and extension workers on the full extent of the potential benefits of biogas plants.
A number of activities relating to bio-slurry application in farming have been carried out under the project to reach the above objectives with some positive results and also raised issues/questions to researchers and extension workers.
Description of activities is provided in the report. The first is research. A number of priorities in terms of bio-slurry application to farming activities were identified and how to apply bio-slurry farming activity under Vietnam conditions is investigated. The second was demo plots, where theory is brought to reality. The document continues with the restrictions in applying bio-slurry. Further, general observations regarding bio-slurry from biogas user survey and field trips are described and the document ends with a future plan.
This document presents basic information about biogas technology in the form of Biogas Digest Volume 4. The document contains 19 sections on different countries and regions. They are respectively:
• Biogas technology in Bangladesh
• Biogas technology in Belize
• Biogas technology in Bolivia (region Chochabamba)
• Biogas technology in Burundi
• Biogas technology in China (Sichuan)
• Biogas technology in Columbia
• Biogas technology in India
• Biogas technology in Orissa (India)
• Biogas technology in Sangli (India)
• Biogas technology in the Ivory Coast (region of Korhogo)
• Biogas technology in Jamaica
• Biogas technology on Java (province of Central Java)
• Biogas technology in Kenya
• Biogas technology in Morocco (region of Souss-Massa)
• Biogas technology in Nepal
• Biogas technology in Tanzania
• Biogas technology in Thailand
• Biogas technology in Tunisia (Sejenane, El Kef)
• Biogas technology in Vietnam
This report evaluates the progress made by the Biogas Programme phase I (BP) in Vietnam by using a combination of desk-reviews, interviews and group discussions.
Overall, the programme has achieved tremendous success in meeting its objectives in phase I by exceeding the original plants target by 50% and completing the construction 7 months ahead of schedule. All marketing tools of the project have proven to be effective, with the most successful tool-investigation of potential users and the promotion talks by district technicians.
For further improvement of the promotion and marketing tools, specific recommendations are presented (e.g. the introduction of visual tools and the official involvement of local authorities). The training activities given to BP staff, technicians, masons, and the operation and maintenance of biogas plants for users were among the other positively evaluated elements with few suggestions for improvement (e.g. time for training should be arranged out of farmers’ production time). Furthermore, although subsidy was highly appreciated, stakeholders were not satisfied with the equal subsidy scheme as it did not reflect the discrepancy in economic conditions. The quality control system of the BP was another aspect which was evaluated in a positive way. The application and use of biogas shown that it was used for a wide range of activities, such as cooking, lighting, drying teas, etc. and that farmers used bio-slurry as fertilisers for their crops or as feed for livestock. The specific strengths and weaknesses of the BP in Vietnam, together with recommendations are available in the report.
This report presents the results of a biogas user survey designed to assess the effect of domestic biogas installations on energy, agriculture, health and sanitation, and environment.
The two main reasons for constructing biogas plants found by the survey were to reduce negative environmental impacts, and cooking time and costs. The economic, health, and environment benefits derived from biogas were also evident. Households saved 1-3 hours per thanks to using biogas for cooking and they managed to save 4,000VND per day. Further, flies and mosquitoes were substantially less after the installation. Biogas plants installation has also positively impacted animal raising as households managed to increase its scale substantially. As far as husbandry is concerned, it appeared that the role of project technicians was not clear and it needed further improvement. Households were also aware of the main benefit of slurry as a fertiliser-it not only helped them to increase crop productivity and product quality, but also to replace chemical fertilisers such as nitrogen and potassium. However, it is important to note that additional slurry benefits such as food for husbandry and aquatic product rearing were unknown to 60% of the households surveyed.
The survey also revealed the high potential of biogas in reducing green house gasses but it also admitted that more data were needed to build an emission baseline for reference. Based on the analysis of survey results, detailed recommendations for the improvement and further advancement of the programme are provided in the report.
The principal objective of this survey is to evaluate the effect of domestic biogas installations. To this extent, the survey shall assess relevant and unrelated aspects like energy, agriculture, health and sanitation, environment, economics and users convenience. The BUS aims to get a better understanding of the user’s opinion and satisfaction, besides its difficulties and constraints for operation and maintenance. Additionally, BUS seeks to deliver trends on the biogas program development and its impact. The methodology of the survey consisted of defining the content of the structured questionnaire forms, in depth interviews and observations. The survey sample was of 407 households (382 users, 25 non-users).
The main conclusions are: using biogas helps families to save time in cooking, cleaning, fuel collection/buying. Families have more time for business activities. However, the biogas plant does not affect livestock/plants breeding. The surveyed households mentioned that the subsidy (VND 1 million/per biogas plant) is quite low and the process of obtaining is slow. The knowledge of mason and quality of construction is quite good; almost biogas plants still operate well. Extensive recommendations are provided on the basis on the conclusions.
This report provides an assessment of the progress of the Biogas Programme (BP) for Vietnam Livestock, according to social, economic, environmental impacts of biodigester use, products and services rendered by BP, as well as a cross section of households’ profiles (desk and filed study).
Survey results indicated that, in general, the BP livestock has achieved very promising results, where more than 70% of users have reported that because of the biogas plants raising livestock has substantially increased. Appreciation of the plant was also very high because of the obvious benefits of cooking and lighting. Further, the benefits and drawbacks of the programme as perceived by users on technological, organisational and implementation, and management level are also obtainable in the report, where some of the important advantages were the reduced environmental pollution from livestock activities and the well-organized and functioning management system. However, the weak link between implementing agencies and local authorities appeared to be one of the main challenges, as well as the high costs of the biogas plants.
Based on the progress of the programme and the difficulties identified, thorough recommendations are made available in the report. The need for a well developed loan system to finance plants construction, strengthening of technician and mason groups, development of practices in dissemination and persuasion activities, and close coordination with authorities on all levels, are only some of the key references.
The biogas user survey 2009 evaluates the the use of biogas and biogas plants of 211 households.
The biodigester user profile details on the socio-economic condition of the households; numbers of animals owned; and cooking practices. Awareness of biogas technology and decision making in the households is surveyed, as well as the construction costs for biodigesters and loans provided. Mason skills and trainings, like bio-slurry or operation trainings, are assessed.
The study elaborates on the performance of biodigesters and the owner’s satisfaction levels. Savings in terms of time and finances provide insight in the effects of switching to biogas use.
Detailed conclusions and recommendations are provided.
The overall objective of the Biogas User Survey (BUS) is to assess the impact of the biogas program on smallholder farms. The BUS aims to get a better understanding of the user’s opinion and satisfaction, besides its difficulties and constraints for operation and maintenance. Additionally, BUS seeks to deliver trends on the biogas program development and its impact. The methodology of the survey consisted of defining the content of the structured questionnaire forms, in depth interviews and observations. The survey sample was of 383 households (303 users, 80 non-users).
The main conclusions are: users are very satisfied with their investment in biogas plants since it provides them great and multiple benefits, in overall they are satisfied with the services provided by the biogas program staff. Important to mention is that more than half of households (65.3%) attached the toilet to their biogas plants in order to solve the human waste disposal problem. There is a trend to enlarge the pig herd once users accustomed to the use of biogas plants, among the 72% of biogas users that did increase it in average acquired 2.9 heads of pig showing that biogas goes behind the pure production of energy and it offers a broad range of advantages for people in rural areas. However the survey raised a few issues within training, operation, maintenance, warranty and biogas appliances that are in need of a revision.
This Biogas User Survey (BUS) report aims to evaluate the quality of services rendered by Vietnamese Biogas Program such as training, construction, quality control; carry out an assessment on the operation and maintenance aspects of biogas plants, slurry used, biogas used by households; evaluation of the functions and roles of Biogas Programme and other organisations/ individuals in project propagation; and assessment of impacts of biogas plants on socio-economic, environmental, health and sanitation, time-use, fuel substitution condition of the users; and validation and verification of multi-benefits claimed by the program.
To obtain this information, different methods were used: collection of secondary data from the desk review, and a field survey that used structured interviews and observations. The total number of surveyed households was 323 biogas users and 80 non-biogas users.
Currently, 92% of the bio-digesters are in operation; around 80% of the interviewees remarked about a decrease in dust, soot and fume; On average, each biogas users save 210,000 VND monthly for fuel used in cooking; 89% of the interviewees revealed they could save time for collecting firewood and other kinds of fuel; and about 70- 80% respondents use the bio-slurry for fertiliser or/ and feeding fish.
Key recommendations include: Prioritization on subsidy from the biogas project; effectiveness of communication; more training for biogas users; and amount of manure fed into the bio-digester.
This intern thesis assesses the economic effect on a household level of using bio-slurry for tea production. In total, one hundred farmers have been asked about current and previous data on the quantity of tea, the price obtained per kilogram of processed tea and the expenditures on both pesticides and chemical fertiliser.
It was concluded that using bio-slurry results in a higher quantity of tea production per sao throughout the whole year. After bringing in the inflation effect the tea cultivated with bio-slurry still obtained a higher price per kilogram of processed tea. The difference in the summer period however was not statistically significant.
Farmers saved money on chemical fertiliser and pesticides. The total average savings (2007) amounted to 2 631 986 VND in total: 2 100 277 VND was saved on chemical fertilizer and 531 619 VND was saved on pesticides.
The increased yields and prices resulted together in an income generating effect of 3 751 509 VND. The income saving and generating effect together result in a total economic impact of 6 383 495 VND per year on a household level. The income effect is larger than the total average investment costs of the biogas installation. After this research it has become clear that from an economic point of view, the bio-slurry is more valuable than the biogas alone.
The report is the outcome of an evaluation study conducted to access household biogas plant models in Vietnam. Two biogas models: KT1 and KT2 are officially being used in the project “Biogas Program for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Vietnam” which has constructed 75,000 household biogas plants so far. To reach the target of 165,000 household biogas plants by 2010; reduce the investment cost; facilitate construction procedure and provide more choices of biogas models to the households, the study was conducted in Soc Son, Hanoi (representative for the North) and My Tho (Tien Giang) (representative for the South) to:
On the basis of the evaluation and comparison of different household model, the study recommends the usage of KT1 and KT2 in exiting provinces, composite biogas and KT31 in new provinces, and the nylon bag biogas in both new and old provinces, though each one with some given criteria (can be found in the report). It also suggests for slurry treatment and developing and stimulating National Technical Regulation on animal waste water and further study on other biogas models having advantages that could be introduced in the project.
Detailed information on methodology, selected designs, demonstrated pilot models and advantages and disadvantages of each model can be found in the report.