This report evaluates the progress made by the Biogas Programme phase I (BP) in Vietnam by using a combination of desk-reviews, interviews and group discussions.
Overall, the programme has achieved tremendous success in meeting its objectives in phase I by exceeding the original plants target by 50% and completing the construction 7 months ahead of schedule. All marketing tools of the project have proven to be effective, with the most successful tool-investigation of potential users and the promotion talks by district technicians.
For further improvement of the promotion and marketing tools, specific recommendations are presented (e.g. the introduction of visual tools and the official involvement of local authorities). The training activities given to BP staff, technicians, masons, and the operation and maintenance of biogas plants for users were among the other positively evaluated elements with few suggestions for improvement (e.g. time for training should be arranged out of farmers’ production time). Furthermore, although subsidy was highly appreciated, stakeholders were not satisfied with the equal subsidy scheme as it did not reflect the discrepancy in economic conditions. The quality control system of the BP was another aspect which was evaluated in a positive way. The application and use of biogas shown that it was used for a wide range of activities, such as cooking, lighting, drying teas, etc. and that farmers used bio-slurry as fertilisers for their crops or as feed for livestock. The specific strengths and weaknesses of the BP in Vietnam, together with recommendations are available in the report.
The principal objective of this survey is to evaluate the effect of domestic biogas installations. To this extent, the survey shall assess relevant and unrelated aspects like energy, agriculture, health and sanitation, environment, economics and users convenience. The BUS aims to get a better understanding of the user’s opinion and satisfaction, besides its difficulties and constraints for operation and maintenance. Additionally, BUS seeks to deliver trends on the biogas program development and its impact. The methodology of the survey consisted of defining the content of the structured questionnaire forms, in depth interviews and observations. The survey sample was of 407 households (382 users, 25 non-users).
The main conclusions are: using biogas helps families to save time in cooking, cleaning, fuel collection/buying. Families have more time for business activities. However, the biogas plant does not affect livestock/plants breeding. The surveyed households mentioned that the subsidy (VND 1 million/per biogas plant) is quite low and the process of obtaining is slow. The knowledge of mason and quality of construction is quite good; almost biogas plants still operate well. Extensive recommendations are provided on the basis on the conclusions.
The biogas user survey 2009 evaluates the the use of biogas and biogas plants of 211 households.
The biodigester user profile details on the socio-economic condition of the households; numbers of animals owned; and cooking practices. Awareness of biogas technology and decision making in the households is surveyed, as well as the construction costs for biodigesters and loans provided. Mason skills and trainings, like bio-slurry or operation trainings, are assessed.
The study elaborates on the performance of biodigesters and the owner’s satisfaction levels. Savings in terms of time and finances provide insight in the effects of switching to biogas use.
Detailed conclusions and recommendations are provided.
The overall objective of the Biogas User Survey (BUS) is to assess the impact of the biogas program on smallholder farms. The BUS aims to get a better understanding of the user’s opinion and satisfaction, besides its difficulties and constraints for operation and maintenance. Additionally, BUS seeks to deliver trends on the biogas program development and its impact. The methodology of the survey consisted of defining the content of the structured questionnaire forms, in depth interviews and observations. The survey sample was of 383 households (303 users, 80 non-users).
The main conclusions are: users are very satisfied with their investment in biogas plants since it provides them great and multiple benefits, in overall they are satisfied with the services provided by the biogas program staff. Important to mention is that more than half of households (65.3%) attached the toilet to their biogas plants in order to solve the human waste disposal problem. There is a trend to enlarge the pig herd once users accustomed to the use of biogas plants, among the 72% of biogas users that did increase it in average acquired 2.9 heads of pig showing that biogas goes behind the pure production of energy and it offers a broad range of advantages for people in rural areas. However the survey raised a few issues within training, operation, maintenance, warranty and biogas appliances that are in need of a revision.
This Biogas User Survey (BUS) report aims to evaluate the quality of services rendered by Vietnamese Biogas Program such as training, construction, quality control; carry out an assessment on the operation and maintenance aspects of biogas plants, slurry used, biogas used by households; evaluation of the functions and roles of Biogas Programme and other organisations/ individuals in project propagation; and assessment of impacts of biogas plants on socio-economic, environmental, health and sanitation, time-use, fuel substitution condition of the users; and validation and verification of multi-benefits claimed by the program.
To obtain this information, different methods were used: collection of secondary data from the desk review, and a field survey that used structured interviews and observations. The total number of surveyed households was 323 biogas users and 80 non-biogas users.
Currently, 92% of the bio-digesters are in operation; around 80% of the interviewees remarked about a decrease in dust, soot and fume; On average, each biogas users save 210,000 VND monthly for fuel used in cooking; 89% of the interviewees revealed they could save time for collecting firewood and other kinds of fuel; and about 70- 80% respondents use the bio-slurry for fertiliser or/ and feeding fish.
Key recommendations include: Prioritization on subsidy from the biogas project; effectiveness of communication; more training for biogas users; and amount of manure fed into the bio-digester.
The report is the outcome of an evaluation study conducted to access household biogas plant models in Vietnam. Two biogas models: KT1 and KT2 are officially being used in the project “Biogas Program for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Vietnam” which has constructed 75,000 household biogas plants so far. To reach the target of 165,000 household biogas plants by 2010; reduce the investment cost; facilitate construction procedure and provide more choices of biogas models to the households, the study was conducted in Soc Son, Hanoi (representative for the North) and My Tho (Tien Giang) (representative for the South) to:
On the basis of the evaluation and comparison of different household model, the study recommends the usage of KT1 and KT2 in exiting provinces, composite biogas and KT31 in new provinces, and the nylon bag biogas in both new and old provinces, though each one with some given criteria (can be found in the report). It also suggests for slurry treatment and developing and stimulating National Technical Regulation on animal waste water and further study on other biogas models having advantages that could be introduced in the project.
Detailed information on methodology, selected designs, demonstrated pilot models and advantages and disadvantages of each model can be found in the report.