In Vietnam over two million families have piggeries that create a huge odour and waste problem. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) has partnered with the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) to develop a nation wide biogas programme, which is turning Vietnam’s waste problem into a source of clean energy.
This case study from the Ashden Award recognises to MARD and SNV their successful partnership which has enabled the large scale dissemination of domestic biogas technology to improve the quality of life for farmers in Vietnam. Chapters include:
3. Potential for growth and replication
4. Contact details
The “Support project to the Biogas Program for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Some Provinces in Vietnam “(Jan-2003 – Jan 2006) and now “Biogas program for the animal husbandry sector of Vietnam bridging phase 2006” is jointly managed by the Livestock Production Department (LPD) under Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and the Netherlands Development Organization Vietnam (SNV-VN), with the BPD as the executive project agency. The Project has covered 24 out of Vietnam’s 64 provinces, supporting the construction of about 28,000 biogas installations. One of the main objectives of the project is increasing the awareness of involved farmers and extension workers on the full extent of the potential benefits of biogas plants.
A number of activities relating to bio-slurry application in farming have been carried out under the project to reach the above objectives with some positive results and also raised issues/questions to researchers and extension workers.
Description of activities is provided in the report. The first is research. A number of priorities in terms of bio-slurry application to farming activities were identified and how to apply bio-slurry farming activity under Vietnam conditions is investigated. The second was demo plots, where theory is brought to reality. The document continues with the restrictions in applying bio-slurry. Further, general observations regarding bio-slurry from biogas user survey and field trips are described and the document ends with a future plan.
This document presents basic information about biogas technology in the form of Biogas Digest Volume 4. The document contains 19 sections on different countries and regions. They are respectively:
• Biogas technology in Bangladesh
• Biogas technology in Belize
• Biogas technology in Bolivia (region Chochabamba)
• Biogas technology in Burundi
• Biogas technology in China (Sichuan)
• Biogas technology in Columbia
• Biogas technology in India
• Biogas technology in Orissa (India)
• Biogas technology in Sangli (India)
• Biogas technology in the Ivory Coast (region of Korhogo)
• Biogas technology in Jamaica
• Biogas technology on Java (province of Central Java)
• Biogas technology in Kenya
• Biogas technology in Morocco (region of Souss-Massa)
• Biogas technology in Nepal
• Biogas technology in Tanzania
• Biogas technology in Thailand
• Biogas technology in Tunisia (Sejenane, El Kef)
• Biogas technology in Vietnam
This report evaluates the progress made by the Biogas Programme phase I (BP) in Vietnam by using a combination of desk-reviews, interviews and group discussions.
Overall, the programme has achieved tremendous success in meeting its objectives in phase I by exceeding the original plants target by 50% and completing the construction 7 months ahead of schedule. All marketing tools of the project have proven to be effective, with the most successful tool-investigation of potential users and the promotion talks by district technicians.
For further improvement of the promotion and marketing tools, specific recommendations are presented (e.g. the introduction of visual tools and the official involvement of local authorities). The training activities given to BP staff, technicians, masons, and the operation and maintenance of biogas plants for users were among the other positively evaluated elements with few suggestions for improvement (e.g. time for training should be arranged out of farmers’ production time). Furthermore, although subsidy was highly appreciated, stakeholders were not satisfied with the equal subsidy scheme as it did not reflect the discrepancy in economic conditions. The quality control system of the BP was another aspect which was evaluated in a positive way. The application and use of biogas shown that it was used for a wide range of activities, such as cooking, lighting, drying teas, etc. and that farmers used bio-slurry as fertilisers for their crops or as feed for livestock. The specific strengths and weaknesses of the BP in Vietnam, together with recommendations are available in the report.
This report presents the results of a biogas user survey designed to assess the effect of domestic biogas installations on energy, agriculture, health and sanitation, and environment.
The two main reasons for constructing biogas plants found by the survey were to reduce negative environmental impacts, and cooking time and costs. The economic, health, and environment benefits derived from biogas were also evident. Households saved 1-3 hours per thanks to using biogas for cooking and they managed to save 4,000VND per day. Further, flies and mosquitoes were substantially less after the installation. Biogas plants installation has also positively impacted animal raising as households managed to increase its scale substantially. As far as husbandry is concerned, it appeared that the role of project technicians was not clear and it needed further improvement. Households were also aware of the main benefit of slurry as a fertiliser-it not only helped them to increase crop productivity and product quality, but also to replace chemical fertilisers such as nitrogen and potassium. However, it is important to note that additional slurry benefits such as food for husbandry and aquatic product rearing were unknown to 60% of the households surveyed.
The survey also revealed the high potential of biogas in reducing green house gasses but it also admitted that more data were needed to build an emission baseline for reference. Based on the analysis of survey results, detailed recommendations for the improvement and further advancement of the programme are provided in the report.
The principal objective of this survey is to evaluate the effect of domestic biogas installations. To this extent, the survey shall assess relevant and unrelated aspects like energy, agriculture, health and sanitation, environment, economics and users convenience. The BUS aims to get a better understanding of the user’s opinion and satisfaction, besides its difficulties and constraints for operation and maintenance. Additionally, BUS seeks to deliver trends on the biogas program development and its impact. The methodology of the survey consisted of defining the content of the structured questionnaire forms, in depth interviews and observations. The survey sample was of 407 households (382 users, 25 non-users).
The main conclusions are: using biogas helps families to save time in cooking, cleaning, fuel collection/buying. Families have more time for business activities. However, the biogas plant does not affect livestock/plants breeding. The surveyed households mentioned that the subsidy (VND 1 million/per biogas plant) is quite low and the process of obtaining is slow. The knowledge of mason and quality of construction is quite good; almost biogas plants still operate well. Extensive recommendations are provided on the basis on the conclusions.
This report provides an assessment of the progress of the Biogas Programme (BP) for Vietnam Livestock, according to social, economic, environmental impacts of biodigester use, products and services rendered by BP, as well as a cross section of households’ profiles (desk and filed study).
Survey results indicated that, in general, the BP livestock has achieved very promising results, where more than 70% of users have reported that because of the biogas plants raising livestock has substantially increased. Appreciation of the plant was also very high because of the obvious benefits of cooking and lighting. Further, the benefits and drawbacks of the programme as perceived by users on technological, organisational and implementation, and management level are also obtainable in the report, where some of the important advantages were the reduced environmental pollution from livestock activities and the well-organized and functioning management system. However, the weak link between implementing agencies and local authorities appeared to be one of the main challenges, as well as the high costs of the biogas plants.
Based on the progress of the programme and the difficulties identified, thorough recommendations are made available in the report. The need for a well developed loan system to finance plants construction, strengthening of technician and mason groups, development of practices in dissemination and persuasion activities, and close coordination with authorities on all levels, are only some of the key references.
The biogas user survey 2009 evaluates the the use of biogas and biogas plants of 211 households.
The biodigester user profile details on the socio-economic condition of the households; numbers of animals owned; and cooking practices. Awareness of biogas technology and decision making in the households is surveyed, as well as the construction costs for biodigesters and loans provided. Mason skills and trainings, like bio-slurry or operation trainings, are assessed.
The study elaborates on the performance of biodigesters and the owner’s satisfaction levels. Savings in terms of time and finances provide insight in the effects of switching to biogas use.
Detailed conclusions and recommendations are provided.
The overall objective of the Biogas User Survey (BUS) is to assess the impact of the biogas program on smallholder farms. The BUS aims to get a better understanding of the user’s opinion and satisfaction, besides its difficulties and constraints for operation and maintenance. Additionally, BUS seeks to deliver trends on the biogas program development and its impact. The methodology of the survey consisted of defining the content of the structured questionnaire forms, in depth interviews and observations. The survey sample was of 383 households (303 users, 80 non-users).
The main conclusions are: users are very satisfied with their investment in biogas plants since it provides them great and multiple benefits, in overall they are satisfied with the services provided by the biogas program staff. Important to mention is that more than half of households (65.3%) attached the toilet to their biogas plants in order to solve the human waste disposal problem. There is a trend to enlarge the pig herd once users accustomed to the use of biogas plants, among the 72% of biogas users that did increase it in average acquired 2.9 heads of pig showing that biogas goes behind the pure production of energy and it offers a broad range of advantages for people in rural areas. However the survey raised a few issues within training, operation, maintenance, warranty and biogas appliances that are in need of a revision.
This Biogas User Survey (BUS) report aims to evaluate the quality of services rendered by Vietnamese Biogas Program such as training, construction, quality control; carry out an assessment on the operation and maintenance aspects of biogas plants, slurry used, biogas used by households; evaluation of the functions and roles of Biogas Programme and other organisations/ individuals in project propagation; and assessment of impacts of biogas plants on socio-economic, environmental, health and sanitation, time-use, fuel substitution condition of the users; and validation and verification of multi-benefits claimed by the program.
To obtain this information, different methods were used: collection of secondary data from the desk review, and a field survey that used structured interviews and observations. The total number of surveyed households was 323 biogas users and 80 non-biogas users.
Currently, 92% of the bio-digesters are in operation; around 80% of the interviewees remarked about a decrease in dust, soot and fume; On average, each biogas users save 210,000 VND monthly for fuel used in cooking; 89% of the interviewees revealed they could save time for collecting firewood and other kinds of fuel; and about 70- 80% respondents use the bio-slurry for fertiliser or/ and feeding fish.
Key recommendations include: Prioritization on subsidy from the biogas project; effectiveness of communication; more training for biogas users; and amount of manure fed into the bio-digester.
This intern thesis assesses the economic effect on a household level of using bio-slurry for tea production. In total, one hundred farmers have been asked about current and previous data on the quantity of tea, the price obtained per kilogram of processed tea and the expenditures on both pesticides and chemical fertiliser.
It was concluded that using bio-slurry results in a higher quantity of tea production per sao throughout the whole year. After bringing in the inflation effect the tea cultivated with bio-slurry still obtained a higher price per kilogram of processed tea. The difference in the summer period however was not statistically significant.
Farmers saved money on chemical fertiliser and pesticides. The total average savings (2007) amounted to 2 631 986 VND in total: 2 100 277 VND was saved on chemical fertilizer and 531 619 VND was saved on pesticides.
The increased yields and prices resulted together in an income generating effect of 3 751 509 VND. The income saving and generating effect together result in a total economic impact of 6 383 495 VND per year on a household level. The income effect is larger than the total average investment costs of the biogas installation. After this research it has become clear that from an economic point of view, the bio-slurry is more valuable than the biogas alone.
The report is the outcome of an evaluation study conducted to access household biogas plant models in Vietnam. Two biogas models: KT1 and KT2 are officially being used in the project “Biogas Program for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Vietnam” which has constructed 75,000 household biogas plants so far. To reach the target of 165,000 household biogas plants by 2010; reduce the investment cost; facilitate construction procedure and provide more choices of biogas models to the households, the study was conducted in Soc Son, Hanoi (representative for the North) and My Tho (Tien Giang) (representative for the South) to:
On the basis of the evaluation and comparison of different household model, the study recommends the usage of KT1 and KT2 in exiting provinces, composite biogas and KT31 in new provinces, and the nylon bag biogas in both new and old provinces, though each one with some given criteria (can be found in the report). It also suggests for slurry treatment and developing and stimulating National Technical Regulation on animal waste water and further study on other biogas models having advantages that could be introduced in the project.
Detailed information on methodology, selected designs, demonstrated pilot models and advantages and disadvantages of each model can be found in the report.
This study explores the possibilities for establishing a sustainable financing scheme for a biogas programme in Vietnam.
The household survey conducted revealed that 78% of households would like to build biogas plants, while the ones who did not want to build the plant were relatively poor and lacked knowledge of biogas. 75% of households have an already existing bank credit. The Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (VBARD), the Vietnam Bank for Social Policy (VBSP) and the People’s Credit Fund (PCF) were the three formal institutions operating the microcredit programs.
It appeared that very few of the already constructed plants have been financed by loans from financial institutions, due to various constraints described in the report (e.g. investment in biogas does not bring direct benefit in terms of cash income). As a response, specific criteria for financing biogas users framework were created and several options were presented for the management and operations of a biogas fund (e.g. an independent biogas facility is set up by FMO, etc.). The
framework for setting up the credit scheme did not involve creating new institutions but instead MFIs extending credit to rural households.
Based on the comprehensive analysis of the credit system and on evaluating the proposed options, wide-ranging recommendations in terms of organisational framework, loan terms, piloting the scheme, general administrative procedure, strengthening bank and MFI institutional capacity, as well as formalizing biodigester construction teams were designed and presented in the report.
This guide for using bio-slurry for commercial fishponds was developed as part of an experimental study to estimate the effects of using bio-slurry in fish ponds and identify methods for using it. The aim is to carry forth some information to help farmers use bio-slurry from biogas for growth out ponds.
It describes the pond preparation; fingerlings selection; bio-slurry preparation; method of applying the effluent; feed monitoring; pond environment monitoring and fish health.
Bio-slurry from biogas production has many advantages when used in aquaculture (reduced risk of infection in fish; increasing the growth rate of fish because of more effective nutrient enrichment aquatic biota in the pond). The growth rate can increase, and the survival rate of fish as well, while reducing the coefficient of food. As a result, ultimately it increases the economic efficiency of the pond compared to the fresh material used to fertilise ponds.
The International Workshop on Inclusive Planning and Financing of National Programmes on Domestic Biogas in Asia was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from 10-12 November 2010.
The objective of the workshop was to provide a dedicated forum for the exchange of knowledge and experience on the inclusive planning and financing of national programmes on domestic biogas between international practitioners, experts and policy makers.
This workshop report provides an overview of the sessions and the following key questions discussed:
• What is required to execute the programmes in a qualified, integrated and sustainable manner?
• What will be the required budgets for biogas plants installation, sector development and international technical assistance?
• What are the short and medium term funding sources?
• What are the opportunities to establish a regional basket fund?
• Is carbon financing truly feasible?
• Which investments are required from the side of the farmers?
• To what extent can national and local governments provide financial support?
The report includes a programme schedule, list of participants and brief country reports resulting from the sessions.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, in association with the Dutch Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS), organised a two-day international workshop on 'Use of Bio-slurry from Domestic Biogas Plants' during the period 27-28 September, 2006.
The workshop was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and attended by 51 participants from 13 different countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. The objective was to create an organised platform for experts working in domestic biogas sector in different countries to share best practices on the use of bio-slurry at micro level and to identify potential stimulus as well as barriers to further optimise the use of bioslurry.
This workshop proceeding is intended to transfer the ideas and views of those attending the workshop to a wider audience of bio-slurry practitioners.
It is expected that this proceeding will contribute to the broader ongoing discussions about programmes and activities that will facilitate the inclusion of effective use of bio-slurry in initiatives on promotion and development of biodigester technology in different parts of the globe.
This workshop proceeding includes:
• Summary of country presentations of China, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Vietnam on the status of bio-slurry application;
• Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis carried out by the participants on the different aspects of use of bio-slurry;
• Country action plans prepared by respective participants on popularising the use of bioslurry as an organic fertiliser.
As much as possible, the issues raised by the participants during different sessions have been presented in their own words.
The Vietnamese government has recognised the need for development of alternative energy to substitute its dependency on fossil fuels and has developed a vision and strategy on biofuels. Part of this is to recover so called waste lands (degraded or low-fertile) through the production of Jatropha oil seeds. This has the potential to bring a stable income for tens of thousands of rural farmers, especially in the coastal areas of central and southern Vietnam.
Green Energy Vietnam (GEV) started with the cultivation of Jatropha on infertile lands in Ninh Thuan, Quang Tri and Thua Thien Hue provinces. GEV approached SNV to support them in the development and set-up of a new company business model through which they can secure feedstock production from smallholder farmers. Leading in this business model will be to adhere to international sustainability guidelines as they are currently being developed by the Roundtable for Sustainable Biofuels. Essential elements here: access to land for smallholders and social and environmental sustainability.
SNV provides direct advisory to the company, reviewing and commenting their farmer contract systems, improving their farmer extension materials etc. SNV, in collaboration with local capacity builders also provides training services on agricultural extension for company staff and group leaders.
The case study addresses that it's difficult to talk about impact at this stage, but potential impacts for smallholders who can produce Jatropha are mentioned as well as some lessons learned.
This leaflet introduces SNV's work and results on developing domestic biogas in Vietnam. It starts with key achievements (and aims) from the start of the programme to 2008. In 2006, this programme was presented with the Energy Globe Award for its significant contribution to the reduction of "World warming".
There are sanitary and pollution problems surrounding the 27 million pigs in Vietnam, most of which live in individual household farms with 5 to 20 head of livestock. While the majority of pig manure is re-used, mainly for fish feed and fertilizer, the un-used portion is usually deposited in waterways, seriously polluting the environment. High volumes of methane are releases, increasing greenhouse gas emissions and wasting a potential energy source. The manure can be stored in household digester to produce clean biogas.
The overall objective of the Vietnamese biogas programme is "to further develop the commercial and structural deployment of biogas, at the same time avoiding the use of fossil fuels and biomass resource depletion." The main role for SNV here is the provision of advisory services for programme management, biogas strategy, institutionalisation and sector building. As a result, entrepreneurs, institutions and local governments are capacitated, creating a sustainable infrastructure for a biogas sector.
Programme goals for 2011 are described, related to income & employment (number of plants constructed, reduced workload for women, savings on commercial fuels), health & sanitation (e.g. toilet attachments) and environment (e.g. reduction of GHG).
Contact information details are provided.
Workshop report of the regional inception workshop 'learning by doing: capacity development approaches at the local level, which took place on 26-27 November 2007 in Bangkok, Thailand, and was organised by UNDP and SNV (Netherlands Development Organisation), with support from the UNDP Asia Regional Governance Programme (ARGP). The primary workshop objectives were 1) to share lessons learned on capacity development strategies and development efforts aimed at contributing to the MDGs at the sub-national/local level; and 2) identify critical knowledge gaps that need to be addressed to support sub-national/local capacities for reaching the MDGs.