The Kenya Biogas programme is a component of the African Biogas Partnership Programme (ABPP), funded by the Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS) of the Netherlands’ Ministry of Foreign Affairs through two Dutch development NGO’s, the Humanist Institute for Cooperation with Developing Countries (Hivos) and the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV).
The overall goal of the Programme is to improve livelihoods of rural farmers through benefits of domestic biogas and develop of a commercially viable, market oriented biogas sector. In the first 2 years of implementation a total of 3,239 plants have been installed across the country, 477 rural youth trained and engaged in gainful activities as biogas masons and some 67 biogas construction companies engaged viable business.
Over this time a total of over 18,000 farmers have been reached through the Programme’s promotional and extension activities, further raising awareness on the need to use clean energy and increasing agricultural production through effective use of bio-slurry. The Programme is also a key in the development of National biogas standards in Kenya Bureau of Standards that are expected to regulate development of the biogas sector for sustained growth and sustainability.
The year 2011 was the second year of effective implementation of the Kenya National Domestic Biogas Programme (KENDBIP). The year saw a significant expansion in its partnership network with over 55 institutions and organizations from both the private and public sectors collaborating with the programme in the implementation of the various programme components, enhancing the programme’s outreach and service delivery to clients.
This study examines the possible set-up of a National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) in Senegal by clearly stating the steps needed in order to establish the programme, as well as functions needing urgent action by key actors involved in the programme.
Study findings (workshop, field visits, and interviews) indicated that the available institutional framework in the country had sufficient potential for biogas installations. The interest on the side of farmers in the biogas sector was also high. Ministry of Energy was considered as the most suitable institution in realizing a relationship with wider institutional context, and its Agence Sénégalaise d’ Electrification Rurale (ASER) - as the most appropriate implementation agency.
Study recommendations include the need for Ministry of Energy/ASER to determine, within the framework of the national budget allocation procedures, the potential Senegalese budgetary contribution on the basis of the feasibility study and its programme outline. Ministry of Energy/ASER also needs to connect itself with the ongoing process for establishing the programme and disseminating domestic biogas.
Recommendations to SNV WCA stated the urgent need for finalizing its conditions and intervention modes in biogas activities, as well as deciding on possible collaboration activities with ENDA TM. Further, SNV WCA needs to continue execute all necessary steps to be able to assign staff to the NDBP in Senegal as soon as all parties have committed themselves to the programme. The report also presents in detail all functions that need to be executed, as well as the most suitable actors for that purpose.
This study deals with the scope of the National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) in Rwanda, and more specifically serves as a reliable database on energy needs of rural integrated farming households. A survey was used to thoroughly assess individual households’ situation regarding energy, sanitation, health, environmental protection and agriculture, and income generation. 96.5% of surveyed households practiced subsistence or small scale market agriculture, and 99% of those used firewood for cooking fuel. However, 89% would use energy generated from animal and toilet waste for cooking and lighting, and bio-slurry as a fertiliser. Based on the survey results specific challenges and issues needing further attention were identified. NDBP activities included the introduction of biogas lamps in the programme and promotional campaigns at district level involving local authorities.
As for the selection criteria for potential implementation areas, it is important that the cattle keeping system is not the only indicator for the local biogas market potential, as even under zero grazing conditions the available biomass could be insufficient for a satisfying biogas production. For subsidies and micro-finance scheme, the efficient use of animal urine as mixing agent was said to play a key role to save water, together with rainwater harvesting. Further, a key priority for NDBP was to closely monitor the carbon credit market as it constantly develops and brings new opportunities. The rationale behind recommendations as well as detailed survey findings and future steps required can be found in the report.
Article introduces briefly the history and status of biogas technology, as part of Ethiopian rural energy services. It elaborates on the development of a National Biogas Program with assistance from SNV. EREDPC was identified to coordinate the programme.
The artcile discusses the folowing topics:
- A step towards a national biogas program in Ethiopia;
- Rural Energy in Ethiopia;
- Institutional Arrangement;
- EREDPC and implementation experience of rural energy technologies;
- Status of biogas dissemination in Ethiopia;
- SNV and the Ethiopian National Biogas Program (NBP);
- Goal of the National Biogas Program;
- SNV Approach;
- Moments of success;
- Lessons Learnt;
Contact details are provided.
This report presents the outcomes of a field visit in the Kaolack region in Senegal, initiated in order to obtain more information about the practices in this region for biogas use.
Study findings in terms of cattle keeping practices revealed that most cattle households grazed their animals for 6-8hrs a day and stabled them in their compound with a rope or in a basic stable. Further, a few examples of artificial insemination were seen to improve milk and meat cows, which indicated an
interest on the side of farmers to engage in innovative activities if they proved to be beneficial. Further, manure was used to fertilise the fields at the time of planting and water was available through boreholes.
Study findings in terms of size and cooking showed that families were bigger in number than initially expected by SNV (10-15 people). It also appeared that there was only one kitchen for each family available for cooking, with big stoves fuelled by fire wood, which was mostly purchased. During the field visit it became clear that potential biogas installations would not be able to fully satisfy family cooking demand.
The objective of this assignment is to facilitate the selection of an appropriate design for domestic biogas installations to be supported by the proposed programme in Uganda. In particular, the assignment addresses the following in detail:
• A proposal of the criteria for the selection of the most appropriate technology (performance factors);
• An overview of prices of (un-) skilled labour and construction materials in those locations suitable and
• potential for biogas promotion;
• A proposal of an appropriate design for domestic biogas plants;
• A proposal of an appropriate plant-size range for domestic biogas installations;
• Some detailed construction drawings for the proposed design in its proposed sizes;
• A detailed Bill of Quantities for the
• proposed design in its proposed sizes, and;
• A provision of a complete plant-costing overview for the proposed design in its proposed sizes, with a clear indication which costs can be born by the participating households in kind.
Most of the information is gathered through a survey that identifies prices of needed materials, agreement on performance factors and matching of appropriate existing plant designs with the performance factors as preparation for the constructors Workshop, a field visit and 2- day workshop were a number of relevant stakeholders participated.
This annual report provides more detail of the strategic position choices SNV made in East and Southern Africa in 2007 and illustrates our approach with case studies from our practice.
L’objectif de cette etude est une evaluation approfondie de la demande technique potentielle en bio digesteurs domestiques dans les trois regions a forte potentialite ci-dessous mentionnees. Ces regions pourront aussi etre les zones pilotes de la premiere phase (4-5 ans) du programme national de biodigesteurs au Burkina Faso. La zone de l’etude a touche les regions des Hauts Bassins, du Sud Ouest et des Cascades. Compte tenu de la taille de la population a enqueter, et des objectifs de l’etude, les criteres de choix de l’echantillon ont porte sur le nombre de menages par region ainsi que le nombre de zones de denombrement.
Sur les 1000 menages prevus, 1003 ont ete effectivement interroges. Ce qui par ailleurs reduit l’erreur des resultants de l’enquete. Sur la base des 1003 menages enquetes, les menages eligibles ont concerne ceux qui ont 4 bovins et plus et 8 porcins et plus. Le tableau ci-dessous indique donne le total des menages eligibles et ce suivant les trois especes retenues pour l’etude a savoir, la race locale, la race amelioree et l’azawak pour les bovins et deux pour les porcins (la race locale et la race amelioree).
31% des menages enquetes possedent au moins 4 tetes de bovins et 11% possede au moins 8 tetes de porcins. Parmi ces menages, 34 possedent cumulativement au moins 4 tetes de bovins et 8 tetes de porcins et plus. On deduit que le nombre de menages qui disposent d’au moins 4 tetes de bovins et plus de 8 tetes de porcins est de 388. Des 310 menages qui possedent au plus 4 tetes de bovins seulement 50% (154 menages) ont un etable ou un enclos. Des 112 menages enquetes qui possedent au plus 8 tetes de porcins, 83% (93 menages) ont une porcherie.
Dans la zone de l’etude, les 388 menages qui ont au moins 4 tetes de bovins et 8 tetes de porcins utilisent l’eau des puits 36%, des marres 31%, des forages 27%, des barrages 3% et des robinets 2%. De ces sources d’approvisionnement en eau, 283 menages ont de l’eau toute l’annee soit 73%. Les sources d’approvisionnement en eau sont fournies a partir de la figure suivante. Pour ce qui concerne la proximite des points d’eau pour l’ensemble des menages enquetes, 213 menages parcourent moins de vingt (20) metres pour s’approvisionner en eau et les 385 parcourent moins de 1500 metres. Pour les 388 menages qui ont un potentiel d’animaux pour faire fonctionner un kit bio gaz 81% ont de l’eau potable pour la
boisson humaine tout au long de l’annee. Pour ce qui est de la distance, 92% de ces menages parcourent moins de 1500 m pour s’approvisionner en eau. Quant a l’energie, 34% des menages eligibles cherchent leur bois en brousse. Seulement 50 menages (soit 5% des menages enquetes et eligibles) achetent le bois au marche et au bord de la route. Ils depensent par jour en moyenne cent quatre vingt cinq (185) francs pour l’achat du bois. Des menages qui sont eligibles aux kits bio gaz sur la base de la possession des animaux stabilises et la disponibilite permanente d’eau, 25% utilisent les lampes torches et les 75% s’eclairent avec les lampes a petrole. Ceux-ci depensent en moyenne vingt sept mille trios cent quarante (27 340) francs CFA pour l’achat des piles et du petrole par an. En conclusion, la demande reelle des kits est determinee sur la base des menages qui possedent au moins quatre boeufs ou huit porcs stabilises dans un enclos/ porcherie autour de la concession. Selon les enquetes, deux cent trente deux (232) menages ont au moins quatre boeufs ou huit porcs qui sont soit dans un enclos / etables ou porcherie. Ce qui correspond a 23% des menages enquetes. Ce taux rapporte au nombre total des menages ruraux (238915) de la zone de l’etude donne 54 950 menages. De ce nombre, les ménages qui disposent d’un point d’eau permanent de moins de vingt mètres de la concession sont au nombre de 30 966 soit 30 966 Kits de biogaz.
Feasibility study for a national domestic biogas programme in
Burkina Faso (2007).
This study assesses the technical, economic, and socio-political feasibility of setting-up a National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) in Burkina Faso.
The study revealed that due to different environmental and climatic conditions, water availability, agricultural and livestock husbandry systems, biogas potential is unevenly distributed over the country, with considerable differences between regions. Further, although biogas has demonstrated health and
environmental benefits compared to traditional fuels, availability of skilled technicians, financing of first costs and learning processes of users were identified as serious potential barriers to its implementation.
By taking into account the findings of the feasibility assessment, an outline with recommendations for NDBP has been created. As for Programme management, the establishment of a coordination body for the institutional networking of NDBP has been suggested as critical for effective market penetration and achievement of the main goals. Financing required strong partnership with national banking and microfinance institutions in order to contribute to NDBP subsidy schemes and micro-finance mechanisms.
Marketing was to strongly focus on promoting biogas benefits for women, as households energy needs were largely met by females at the time of the study. Training was another essential component for the success of NDBP and has been planned on user and private sector level. Further, standardization and quality control would be vital for NDBP in achieving massive dissemination and long-term sustainability.
Thorough analysis and specific recommendations as to every NDBP aspect can be found in the report.
Report on the feasibility study of a national programme for
domestic biogas in Ethiopia (2006).
This report evaluates the feasibility of establishing a National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) in Ethiopia, a country where rural domestic energy supply is entirely biomass based, energy consumption is high, demand of energy exceeds supply, and renewable energy levels are low.
Study findings concluded that there was significant technical potential for domestic biogas in the regions studied (Amhara, Oromia, SNNPRS and Tigray). However, despite the potential, important challenging areas have been also found: the low level of disposable income of rural households diminishes potential investments; the very limited rural dissemination infrastructure and scattered population pattern cause dissemination activities to be lengthy and expensive; gender imbalance in decision-making further discourages investment, etc. Further, 60% of the visited installations were not functioning due to technology problems (e.g. lack of technical back-up services), water shortage problems (e.g. large
distance to water sources cause plants to stop operating), dung shortage problems (e.g. amount of available dung did not meet farmers’ expectations), plants abandonment (e.g. when families moved to another area they could not bring along the installation), and loss of interest.
The main outcome of the study was to set a pilot biogas programme in four regions, over 5 years, estimated at €11 million, and use the results of this programme to determine Ethiopia’s future in the biogas sector. Further recommendations in terms of market oriented approach, reduction of investment costs, quality management, selection programme partners, etc. are provided in the report.
Physical feasibility of domestic biogas in the upper East region of Ghana (2008).
This study examines the physical feasibility of setting-up a National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) in the upper east region of Ghana, and settles various concerns with regards to the precise physical feasibility of the region.
Study findings indicated 42% of the houses have 10-19 people living in them and 63% of the houses keep cattle. In all communalities, cattle are invariably kraaled overnight, which made cattle dung available near the house. Cattle population and management trends indicated keeping fewer cattle, but in the same time by many more households. The trend in farm intensification showed that farming was gradually becoming
intensive as the population increased respectively. Further, chemical fertiliser was still used in minimum quantities. The domestic energy situation showed that most of the communalities were not connected to the electricity grid and their household energy came from crop residue, firewood, charcoal and dung respectively.
The study concluded that the physical potential in the upper east region of Ghana, based on cattle population, dung and water availability, amounts to 28,000 biogas installations, a very significant number for a single region. Further positive trends making biogas an attractive investment included cattle
management, farm dynamics and firewood scarcity (all trends are thoroughly discussed in the report). Future steps requiring action comprise economic and financial analyses, as well as a pilot programme outline for biogas plant construction. All recommendations and their rationale are thoroughly presented in the report.
A technical feasibility study on the implementation of a biogas promotion programme in the Sikasso region in Mali (2007).
Study findings in terms of technical feasibility revealed that although water resources availability was sufficient for a biogas system, and the average temperature allowed for the installation to function, collecting manure difficulties proved to be the biggest challenge, as it was not guaranteed throughout the year due to the temporary migration in the dry season. Further, the number of families that do have cattle around the household year-round was too small. A biogas system that requires daily input was, therefore, not feasible in the studied context. In terms of energy consumption, kerosene was the most widely lighting source used and its costs were constantly rising which was seen as a considerable problem by rural households. Further, if biogas was to be introduced, both men and women would use it mainly for lighting and not for cooking. In terms of financing, it was concluded that even with a high subsidy the value of the biodigester was considered insufficient.
Based on the study results, it was concluded that biogas introduction would most likely be unsuccessful in the studied region. Firstly, this is because there is absence of a regular supply of dung at most farms. Secondly, the costs for the biogas plant construction are high because of the need for large batch-fed plants, and thirdly, gas would only be used for lighting which makes other renewable energy sources more suitable.
Report on the feasibility study for a biogas support programme
in the Republic of Rwanda (2005).
This study evaluates the feasibility of setting-up and implementing a National Biogas Programme in Rwanda (desk study, field visits, discussions, etc.).
Study findings indicated that rural households depended for more than 90% on fuel wood to meet their daily energy needs, and that it has become increasingly difficult to satisfy this demand due to the increasing population and strict legislation for reducing fuel wood consumption. The conditions for dissemination of biodigesters as found by the study are on a technological (e.g. water availability; zerograzing; daily temperatures of over 20 0C), economic (e.g. scarcity of traditional cooking fuel, fuel wood and charcoal; dairy farming as the main source of income; access to credit; use of organic fertiliser), social (e.g. role of women in domestic decision-making, livestock keeping and participation in training programmes), and institutional level (e.g. political will of the Government to support the programme; existence of farmers associations; accessibility of farmers through Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs). From all factors mentioned, it has been suggested that access to credit for farmers is the only condition that was not present at all in the country, for which a finance mechanism providing credit under
reasonable conditions needed to be immediately established.
The report presents a comprehensive analysis of all factors needed to establish and implement the programme, as well as thorough recommendations as to how to improve the weak areas (e.g. technology, commercialization, integrated farming are only some of the areas for which references are provided).
Report on the feasibility study on a national programme for
domestic biogas in Senegal (2007).
This study assesses the feasibility of setting-up and implementing a National Domestic Biogas Programme
(NDBP) in Senegal on a technological, economic, social and environmental level. Because of the high costs of domestic fuels, their scarcity and commercialization, there is a considerable need for domestic biogas services.
Study findings indicated that the technical conditions for operating biogas plants are met to a large extent by most households (access to water within 1km, sufficient cattle and dung on a daily basis). In order to test the demand for biogas in the country and to allow time to develop the most suitable model for installation and dissemination, a one year pilot phase has been recommended.
It was estimated that the investment cost for a typical biogas plant was high, which is why a combination of subsidy and credit has been proposed. A market-oriented introduction of the technology has been advised, where biogas construction companies would be responsible for marketing, construction and after sales service. Since such companies were not present in Senegal at that time, extensive training efforts were needed. As for an implementation partner for the programme, although Agence Senegalais d’Electification Rurale (ASER) seemed suited for assuming overall responsibility of the project, a more detailed stakeholder analysis was advised in order to select the most suitable partner.
The study presents in detail the costs and benefits associated with biogas installation, as well as detailed recommendations for future action in terms of the four analysis levels (economic, social, environmental and technological).
Biogas for better life: an African initiative. Report on the feasibility for a national household biogas commercialization program in Uganda (2007).
Initial screening activities and field work show that Uganda offers one of the best near-term prospects for biogas commercialization in the region. The existence of policies supporting the rural energy investments and institutional mechanisms that have been built through earlier work by the government and private sectors in Uganda, together with the energy crisis being faced by the country, provide a conducive entry point for an integrated household-level biogas program.
This report contains 8 chapters in total. Chapter 1 gives an introduction. Chapter 2 lays out the study design along with the objectives, methodology and limitations. The background of Uganda is presented in Chapter 3, with elaboration of the physical climate, politics and culture, the economy, the agricultural sector, the energy sector, the environment and health and education. Chapter 4 elaborates on the existing
knowledge and practices with the history of biogas, the biodigester models in Uganda and the costs of biogas plants. The potential demand for biogas plants is the subject of Chapter 5, with government policies and programmes, the private sector, the appropriate size and design of a plant, and financial and economic analysis included. Chapter 6 goes into the financing of plants, looking at the microfinance sector, the government microfinance programme, and the funds available. The potential stakeholders are outlined in Chapter 7 with government agencies, NGO, farmer’s organisations, private sector companies and microfinance institutions as possible actors. The final Chapter 8 gives an outline for a national biogas programme.
Biogas: Viable or Not? An explorative study to the feasibility of introducing biogas and the impact on HHs’ livelihoods in the Northern regions of Tanzania (2007).
In the first part of the study an extended overview of the geographical context, the theoretical framework underlying the research, and the methodology used is presented. The report continues with an overview of the history of biogas is Tanzania with elaboration on its main actors, such as like SIDO, AATP, GTZ, CAMARTEC, ELCT, SUDURETA, HEIFER, ABC, PHCA, BSC, KAKUTE and FIDE. It continues with an evaluation of the present status of biogas, the socio-economic profile of users and non-users, a status and technical performance of the biogas plants and its appliances, and positive and negative lessons learned.
Further, the study evaluates the requirements that are needed for the introduction of biogas. These are divided in technical, socio-cultural, financial/economical and institutional requirements. A division is made between contextual and conditional factors. These factors were given a score according to their current status, where the scores show an overview of the feasibility of introduction of the technology.
In the third part the study looks at the impact of biogas on HH level and gives a future outlook. A comparison of theory and practice is presented, as well as the impact of biogas on HHs livelihoods.
The fourth and last part of the report present concluding remarks, looking at which initiatives and developments have occurred so far in Tanzania, the main contextual and conditional factors related to introduction of biogas, the impact of biogas on the livelihood of the HH, and the outlook for the future of biogas in Tanzania.
This study has been prepared with regard to the initiative “Biogas for Better Life – an African Initiative”. Tanzania suffers a severe energy crisis on all levels. In response to this, current governmental policies promote, amongst others, biogas as an alternative source of energy. Tanzania has a long history of biogas utilization since 1975. Several stakeholders are involved: from the local government, parastatal, research and religious organisations - to organisations in the private and financing sector, and NGOs. As a result, nearly 3,000 biogas plants have been constructed while most of them used subsidy to finance the construction. The majority have been of fixed dome design.
Some of the lessons learned from previous biogas projects carried out in Tanzania, are that biogas technology is relatively mature, it fits well with the livestock farming practices, it reduces deforestation, and it improves the life of users. The main barrier is the high cost involved. A turn-key 8 m³ biogas system (fixed dome design, including piping and appliances) in Tanzania costs about 1,200,000 TZS
Knowledge of biogas is limited to the general public, but where the concept is known, it is widely accepted, even in cases where a latrine is attached to the digester. In this study, a target group of at least 276,000 households has been identified and out of this group, about 102,000 customers have been identified as likely to invest in biogas within a national domestic biogas programme. Estimates on Tanzanian market possibilities to construct biogas digesters conclude that about 50,000 units may be built within ten years.
This country paper on Rwanda presents the manner in which financial aspects to help farmers get access to biogas technology were taken in consideration by developing a microfinance loan product. The study describes an investment subsidy, a carbon rebate, and a bank loan as the main mechanisms used to finance the biogas plants, where Banque Populaire du Rwanda was the main financial institution.
A comprehensive SWOT analysis of the current financial instruments is presented in this study (interviews, observations, and a desk study were conducted). It revealed that some of the main benefits were the motivation farmers got to invest in biogas (investment subsidy), ensured payment to the programme (carbon rebate), and low interest rates (bank loan). Among others, the main investment subsidy weakness was its fixed amount. Some of the drawbacks of the bank loan were the repayment risk associated, and for the carbon rebate that it was not easily understood. The opportunities associated with the both the subsidy and the bank loan included the ability to adjust the terms according to individual needs, and with the carbon rebates-investment from big companies. Threats existed as well: the real possibility for the subsidy to be lowered after the first phase, the methodology used for the carbon rebate was becoming obsolete, and for bank loans - that they relied on subsidised sources of finance in Rwanda.
Based on the SWOT analysis, thorough recommendations as to the next step in the biogas programme in Rwanda are presented.
Formulation of Programme Implementation Document for domestic biogas programme in Tanzania: mission report on selection of biogas plant design and formulation of quality control framework and certification procedures for biogas constructors (2008).
This is a mission report on the selection of biogas plant design and formulation of quality control framework and certification procedures for biogas constructors. The main objective of the mission was to assist in the formulation of PID for the National Domestic Biogas Programme in Tanzania by:
• Selecting the most suitable design/model of biogas plants for wide-scale dissemination of the technology in Tanzania
• Formulating basic framework for quality management mechanism in general and quality control in particular, within the Biogas Programme
• Preparing general accreditation/certification modality for the participation of private sector constructors/manufacturers in Biogas Programme.
This report summarises the activities and outcomes of the mission. A main activities of the mission was the field visit with observations of biogas plants of different models/designs installed in different parts of Tanzania to assess physical status and functioning as well as quality of workmanship and visits to appliances manufacturing workshop and consult with the entrepreneur. Further, there was a constructors’ workshop with the selection of a standard appropriate design, size(s) and investment costs for household based on agreed criteria and performance factors. This was done by making an evaluation matrix. There was also a discussion on quality control and certification process for the private sector.
The mission has successfully been completed in the stipulated time frame. It has been effective and successful in selecting the most appropriate biogas plant model to be disseminated under the framework of the proposed national biogas programme.
Ce rapport présente les principales conclusions de la mission d’identification conduite par une équipe mixte de la SNV, Organisation Néerlandaise de Développement, de la GTZ, agence de coopération technique allemande et l’IRSAT, un institut national de recherche technologique. Cette mission d’identification est la suite logique de l’étude de faisabilité sur le biogaz domestique au Burkina Faso réalisée par la GTZ, en collaboration avec l’IRSAT, au courant du deuxième trimestre de l’année 2007. L’objectif de la présente mission était une identification de partenaires appropriés pour un ancrage institutionnel d’un Programme National Biogaz Domestique au Burkina Faso, dans le cadre de l’Initiative africaine sur le biogaz. La mission, qui s’est déroulée du 4 au 16 février 2008, est passée par trois temps forts:
• des visites de terrain dans les régions des Hauts Bassins, des Cascades et de l’Est;
• des interviews avec des partenaires potentiels autours de cette idée de programme et leurs rôles éventuels;
• Un atelier d’une demie journée au cours duquel l’équipe a présenté aux différentes parties prenantes les résultats préliminaires de sa mission d’exploration et des interviews en vue d’avoir des échanges avec les parties prenantes sur un nombre de points importants.
La principale conclusion de la mission est que le contexte institutionnel du Burkina Faso recèle du potentiel suffisant pour exécuter la plupart des fonctions qu’exige le programme proposé (voir schéma ci-dessous) à l’exception de petites (micro) entreprises rurales de construction et d’organisations de la société civile (OSC) de qualité pour accompagner le groupe cible (éleveurs, agro pasteurs). En effet, s’agissant de micro entreprises rurales, il n’existe presque pas au niveau village (et dans les Communes Rurales) des maçons et des artisans métalliques avec le degré de professionnalisme requis par la construction d’un secteur biogaz viable et auto entretenu qui exige l’existence d’un secteur privé local efficace pour porter l’orientation du programme sur les dynamiques du marché, principal gage de succès comme le montrent les exemples actuellement en cours en Asie (Népal, Vietnam, Cambodge, Bangladesh). S’agissant des OSC, il en existe beaucoup au niveau intermédiaire (capitales régionales et dans les principaux centres urbain). Non seulement leurs qualités et leurs capacités sont très variables, mais leurs actions restent en lévitation (pas de preuves évidentes de liens méso-micro).
Sur le plan institutionnel, au niveau macro, les principaux ministères en charge du développement rural (Agriculture, Elevage, Environnement) sont valablement positionnés par rapport à ce programme. Le Ministère de la Promotion de la Femme et le Ministère de l’Energie joueront aussi un rôle de premier plan. Cependant, compte tenu de la place pilier de l’élevage dans le système de production du biogaz à usage
domestique dans le stratégie du programme biogaz proposé, le Ministère des Ressources Animales (MRA) s’avère être le meilleur partenaire de l’Initiative africaine sur le biogaz pour conduire la formulation et la mise en oeuvre du programme et pourrait pertinemment héberger le PNBD.
Il découle de cette mission les principales recommandations suivantes:
• à la SNV Burkina Faso, en collaboration avec IRSAT et MRA, de conduire une étude du marché pour identifier la clientèle définitive avant fin juin 2008 dans les régions identifiés comme régions pilotes dans l’étude de faisabilité 2007;
• au MRA, de manifester avant fin mai 2008 à l’UEMOA, représentant de l’initiative africaine sur le biogaz, l’intérêt du Burkina Faso d’établir avec l’aide de l’initiative un PNBD et d’envoyer copie à la SNV et à la GTZ au Burkina Faso.
• au MRA, d’identifier d’ici fin mai 2008, quelle Direction du Ministère sera le plus approprié pour héberger le PNDB. Cette direction aura la responsabilité de conduire le trajet opérationnel pour la formulation et l’établissement du PNBD;
• au MRA, de constituer, avec les experts issus des Ministères en Charge du Développement Rural, plus des représentants du secteur privé et des OSC, une équipe de formulation du PNBD avant fin juillet 2008. Cette équipe devra ensuite confectionner sa feuille de route et son budget de fonctionnement;
• à l’équipe d’élaboration du PNBD, en collaboration avec SNV, GTZ et IRSAT, de formuler le plan de mise en oeuvre du PNBD, de le faire valider par le Gouvernement du Burkina Faso et de le soumettre à l’initiative africaine sur le biogaz pour assistance, avant fin 2008.