This Working Paper presents key findings and case studies from the partnership on Domestic Accountability between the Minister for Development Cooperation of The Netherlands and SNV. The partnership was initiated in 2008, and has been operational since in four countries in East and Southern Africa, i.e. Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia.
This Working Paper germinated in a meeting in Dar es Salaam (December 2010), bringing together SNV staff from various countries involved in the Domestic Accountability partnership with their respective Netherlands Embassies.
The aim of the reserach was to get a further understanding of the souvenir sector within the Zanzibar tourism industry. By focussing very much on the tourist perspective this survey explores the market demands and needs. By understanding the overall system it was then possible to analyse the market opportunities of Zanzibari products. This was to determine an appropriate course of action for increasing benefits to Zanzibaris working in the souvenir subsector.
In June 2010 SNV, together with IFAD, organised a conference on ‘brokering knowledge for upscaling best practices in Inclusive Markets Access in East & Southern Africa’, which brought together over 70 participants from 11 African countries from donor, public and private sector to share experiences. This report summarizes the main issues discussed during the conference, of which the main focus was seeking to bring about systemic change for larger-scale sustainable inclusive markets with a wider significance.
This publication has been produced as part of a series under the Building Advisory Practice (BAP) initiative of SNV East Africa; conceptualized and supported by a team of SNV staff and advisers. Lead consultant for the BAP initiative is Rob Sinclair.
This annual report provides more detail of the strategic position choices SNV made in East and Southern Africa in 2007 and illustrates our approach with case studies from our practice.
Biogas: Viable or Not? An explorative study to the feasibility of introducing biogas and the impact on HHs’ livelihoods in the Northern regions of Tanzania (2007).
In the first part of the study an extended overview of the geographical context, the theoretical framework underlying the research, and the methodology used is presented. The report continues with an overview of the history of biogas is Tanzania with elaboration on its main actors, such as like SIDO, AATP, GTZ, CAMARTEC, ELCT, SUDURETA, HEIFER, ABC, PHCA, BSC, KAKUTE and FIDE. It continues with an evaluation of the present status of biogas, the socio-economic profile of users and non-users, a status and technical performance of the biogas plants and its appliances, and positive and negative lessons learned.
Further, the study evaluates the requirements that are needed for the introduction of biogas. These are divided in technical, socio-cultural, financial/economical and institutional requirements. A division is made between contextual and conditional factors. These factors were given a score according to their current status, where the scores show an overview of the feasibility of introduction of the technology.
In the third part the study looks at the impact of biogas on HH level and gives a future outlook. A comparison of theory and practice is presented, as well as the impact of biogas on HHs livelihoods.
The fourth and last part of the report present concluding remarks, looking at which initiatives and developments have occurred so far in Tanzania, the main contextual and conditional factors related to introduction of biogas, the impact of biogas on the livelihood of the HH, and the outlook for the future of biogas in Tanzania.
This study has been prepared with regard to the initiative “Biogas for Better Life – an African Initiative”. Tanzania suffers a severe energy crisis on all levels. In response to this, current governmental policies promote, amongst others, biogas as an alternative source of energy. Tanzania has a long history of biogas utilization since 1975. Several stakeholders are involved: from the local government, parastatal, research and religious organisations - to organisations in the private and financing sector, and NGOs. As a result, nearly 3,000 biogas plants have been constructed while most of them used subsidy to finance the construction. The majority have been of fixed dome design.
Some of the lessons learned from previous biogas projects carried out in Tanzania, are that biogas technology is relatively mature, it fits well with the livestock farming practices, it reduces deforestation, and it improves the life of users. The main barrier is the high cost involved. A turn-key 8 m³ biogas system (fixed dome design, including piping and appliances) in Tanzania costs about 1,200,000 TZS
Knowledge of biogas is limited to the general public, but where the concept is known, it is widely accepted, even in cases where a latrine is attached to the digester. In this study, a target group of at least 276,000 households has been identified and out of this group, about 102,000 customers have been identified as likely to invest in biogas within a national domestic biogas programme. Estimates on Tanzanian market possibilities to construct biogas digesters conclude that about 50,000 units may be built within ten years.
Formulation of Programme Implementation Document for domestic biogas programme in Tanzania: mission report on selection of biogas plant design and formulation of quality control framework and certification procedures for biogas constructors (2008).
This is a mission report on the selection of biogas plant design and formulation of quality control framework and certification procedures for biogas constructors. The main objective of the mission was to assist in the formulation of PID for the National Domestic Biogas Programme in Tanzania by:
• Selecting the most suitable design/model of biogas plants for wide-scale dissemination of the technology in Tanzania
• Formulating basic framework for quality management mechanism in general and quality control in particular, within the Biogas Programme
• Preparing general accreditation/certification modality for the participation of private sector constructors/manufacturers in Biogas Programme.
This report summarises the activities and outcomes of the mission. A main activities of the mission was the field visit with observations of biogas plants of different models/designs installed in different parts of Tanzania to assess physical status and functioning as well as quality of workmanship and visits to appliances manufacturing workshop and consult with the entrepreneur. Further, there was a constructors’ workshop with the selection of a standard appropriate design, size(s) and investment costs for household based on agreed criteria and performance factors. This was done by making an evaluation matrix. There was also a discussion on quality control and certification process for the private sector.
The mission has successfully been completed in the stipulated time frame. It has been effective and successful in selecting the most appropriate biogas plant model to be disseminated under the framework of the proposed national biogas programme.
SNV Netherlands Development Organization subscribes to these developments and devotes considerable part of its advisory services for capacity development in the tourism sector. SNV advisors work with a variety of organizations, stakeholders and actors, such as Ministries of Tourism, Tourism Boards, Hotel Associations, Community Based Tourism Organizations as well as with Associations of Tour Operators and many others. Against this background SNV East and Southern Africa brought together practitioners in the tourism sector to present and exchange experiences around the issue of Government Incentives to Boost Local Economic Impacts of Tourism.
This document is the outcome of that initiative. SNV and Rwanda’s ORTPN hosted a regional tourism workshop in Kigali Rwanda in October 2006. The workshop drew on ‘action research’ by SNV advisors in 6 countries and brought together SNV partners and advisors from East and Southern African countries.
This booklet reflects seven years of experience of the Biogas Extension Service (BES) of CAMARTEC (Centre for Agricultural Mechanization and Rural Technology) in Arusha/ Tanzania which was carried out in cooperation with Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ), Eschborn, FRG, as part of the Biogas Extension Programme and as part of the Special Energy Programme during 1983-1990. This publication is meant as a teaching aid in agricultural colleges and as a reference book for professionals working in the field of rural biogas extension. For that reason, the ideal set-up of a biogas unit is described. Biogas units have to be appropriate to the farmers’ condition. Therefore, the findings and conclusions reported must be seen in context with the geographical and socio-economic situation of the project area. For the coffee-banana-belt of Arumeru District of Tanzania the fixed dome plant is the most appropriate. It was difficult to come to a reliable structure and a user-friendly layout and design. The basic problems are solved, but minor improvements may still be possible. Beginners in biogas are advised to first follow the given standard design. A non-appropriate but functioning solution is still better than an appropriate one which does not work reliable.
The chapters of this booklet are respectively; Why biogas?; Explanation of terms; Biogas extension work; The agricultural biogas unit; Construction of the biogas plant; Construction of cattle stable; Construction of the pigsty; The sanitary biogas unit; Use of Slurry; Use of gas; Operation and maintenance; and Pending technical issues.
December 2008 saw the birth of the Africa Biogas Partnership Programme (ABPP). DGIS provides funds to support the national biogas programmes in six African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Burkina Faso, and Senegal. This document is the PID document for Tanzania. This final draft Programme Implementation Document provides details on the scope, activities, institutional set-up, and related budget. The document describes the history of biogas in Tanzania since 1975 until present with the used technologies. SNV commissioned in cooperation with the Tanzania Biogas Task Force an assessment of the currently used technologies and designed the “Modified CAMARTEC Design”. Further it evaluates the technical potential, the economic attractiveness with EIRR, and the social acceptance.
The report also presents the goal, purpose and expected results, and provides output targets focussing on annual production of plants, quality control, training and the provision of after sales services by Biogas Construction Enterprises (BCEs). Further, the establishment of local Biogas Appliance Manufacturers will be supported.
Under institutional aspects the report divides the biogas sector into a demand and supply side. The core of the primary process is in the commercial interaction between the (prospective) biogas household and the Biogas Construction Enterprise. The functions of the Tanzania Biogas Programme Office (TBP office) are also explained, with CAMARTEC being the host organisation for the office.
Under activities and inputs the investment costs like plant construction costs, programme implementation costs and investment subsidy are described. Further, the activity schedule and budget are presented. The report ends with a SWOC analysis.
This publication has been produced as part of a series under the Building Advisory Practice (BAP) initiative of the SNV East and Southern Africa, conceptualized and supported by a team of SNV staff and advisers, Rob Sinclair, BAP Lead Consultant. original text by Corina Dhaene (ACE Europe, Belgium, www.ace-europe.be), and developed by SNV edited by Helen van Houten, design and layout by Conrad Mudibo, Ecomedia Limited
The initiative to present a series of country documents on the state of Sustainable and Pro Poor Tourism in Africa was brought forward during an international workshop in Rwanda at the end of 2006. At this workshop SNV advisors, hotel and tour operators, government staff and representatives of NGOs and international donors exchanged their views on “How Governments can Boost Local Economic Development through Tourism”.
This report presents the findings of a visit paid by the Biogas Practice Leader of SNV Netherlands Development Organisation to the proposed programme on domestic biogas in Tanzania. This visit took place from 8 -12 April 2008, aiming to inform the Tanzanian stakeholders on the state of affairs of the “Biogas for Better Life: an African Initiative to discuss the recently elaborated draft Terms of Reference (ToR) for the formulation of a detailed Programme Implementation Document (PID) on a national domestic biogas programme, and to jointly explore its possible funding; and to discuss the possible roles of the various (groups of) Tanzanian actors in the programme.
To facilitate the discussion about possible roles of the various (groups of) Tanzanian actors in the programme, a function model was presented with the activities required for national programmes on domestic biogas. The function model was found useful to discuss and clarify the possible roles of various
stakeholders. CAMARTEC has been accepted by all interviewed stakeholders to become the leading organisation in the biogas programme.
All meetings made clear that the proposed national programme on domestic biogas in Tanzania is relevant for the country. The feasibility study, stakeholder meetings (4x) and Task-Force meetings (9x) have raised a lot of interest, and time has come to embark on the next step: the formulation of the PID.