This study aims at analysing slurry-compost samples of toilet attached biogas plants on the presence of parasites and bacteria, which could pose a health risk while handling the compost.
Out of the 22 new locations from Chitwan and Kavre districts, 6 slurry samples (27%) and four compost samples (18%) were detected for the presence of some kind of parasites. As the parasites present in the compost were different from those in slurry, it might be due to the water logging of the compost pit during rainy season. According to the result of the test, the parasites detected in some fresh slurry were: Larvae of Strongyloides, cyst of Entamoeba histolytica, ova of Ascaris lumbricoides, ova of Trichuris trichura, motile protozoal parasites, Trophozoides of Giardia lamblia. Similarly, parasites detected in compost sample were: Larvae of Strongyloides and ova of Ascaris lumbricoides.
None of the pathogenic organisms were isolated from all samples of slurry and compost in bacteriological tests performed. No direct relationship was obtained with biogas plant size and number of persons using toilet in contaminating the slurry. It was also observed that the parasites containing in the feeding slurry were not well destroyed during retention period in digested chamber in some cases. However, it might have destroyed or reduced some parasites/pathogens after digestion. A study of parasites/pathogens present on faeces at the time of feeding and in fresh slurry after digestion could provide some information for better understanding of the process.
The report focuses on the efforts of the Biogas Pilot Programme (BPP) and SNV in developing expertise on bio-slurry management and utilisation. They aim to capacitate the extension workers for the promotion and transfer of knowledge to the biogas famers in order to increase their yield and soil fertility for sustainability land use. The objectives were two-fold:
The report concludes that, even though the training on bio-slurry is not a new topic for the BPP, the process and mythology on this training was new, also the content. The trainer and advisor tried to find out local appropriate methods and content useful for participants. This can be used in the real situation for Lao PDR to increase the yield and income for the farmer. In this training, the participants learnt a lot about bio-slurry management and utilization and they had practiced this in the field.
All the tools and the methods that were used in the training were useful and can help the extension workers on provincial level to train their staff. Bio-slurry use can also help to increase GDP, especially because bio-slurry will save our nature and land use will become more sustainable. The Terms of Reference for Local Capacity Builder to support on conducting bio-slurry mission is included.
This report evaluates the management of bio-slurry, as well as its effect on soil fertility and crop production in Bangladesh by studying bio-slurry and slurry compost. The main institutions involved in the project were the Soil Science Division (SSD) and On Farm Research Division (OFRD) of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI).
Study findings indicated that the nutrient content of both cow dung (CD) slurry and poultry manure (PM) slurry were higher than the aerobically decomposed cow dung and poultry manure. Further, cobalt, nickel, cadmium and arsenic content of cow dung & poultry manure and their bio slurry were within the safe limit.
Two on-stations experiments were conducted to assess the performance of bio-slurry on yield, and nutrient uptake of cabbage and cauliflower. The results showed higher yield of cauliflower and cabbage when treated with bio-slurry. Further, nutrient uptake was higher in both organic and inorganic fertiliser treated plot compared to no-fertiliser treated plot. Field experiments were used to measure the effect of bio-slurry on different crops (tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, maize, boro rice and wheat), where results showed that slurry has indeed a positive impact on the crops. Further, the yield of the crops was significantly influenced by the different nutrient management options used.
The overall conclusion of the report is that bio-slurry can significantly help in reducing the fertiliser crisis around the world and in improving crop performance. The report presents detailed results from the on-station and field experiments per crop and location respectively.
The “Support project to the Biogas Program for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Some Provinces in Vietnam “(Jan-2003 – Jan 2006) and now “Biogas program for the animal husbandry sector of Vietnam bridging phase 2006” is jointly managed by the Livestock Production Department (LPD) under Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and the Netherlands Development Organization Vietnam (SNV-VN), with the BPD as the executive project agency. The Project has covered 24 out of Vietnam’s 64 provinces, supporting the construction of about 28,000 biogas installations. One of the main objectives of the project is increasing the awareness of involved farmers and extension workers on the full extent of the potential benefits of biogas plants.
A number of activities relating to bio-slurry application in farming have been carried out under the project to reach the above objectives with some positive results and also raised issues/questions to researchers and extension workers.
Description of activities is provided in the report. The first is research. A number of priorities in terms of bio-slurry application to farming activities were identified and how to apply bio-slurry farming activity under Vietnam conditions is investigated. The second was demo plots, where theory is brought to reality. The document continues with the restrictions in applying bio-slurry. Further, general observations regarding bio-slurry from biogas user survey and field trips are described and the document ends with a future plan.
This report presents a comprehensive assessment on bio-slurry use in Nepal and its impact on aspects of handling and application of the slurry, training programmes for biogas farmers, strengths and weaknesses of bio-slurry, as reported by surveys, review of various documents and consultation with concerned personnel. Physico-chemical slurry characteristics are discussed.
Spreading in field uncovered in small heaps is the most popular practice for storage and application of bio-slurry. Bio-slurry is shown to have positive impact on fish growth and substantially better influence on crops as compared to other fertilisers. The Slurry Extension Pilot Programme (SEPP) implemented by SNV/BSP to stimulate the use of slurry among biogas farmers has had a strong positive effect in making farmers more aware of the use of bio-slurry as a fertiliser to increase crop production. Some of the positive outcomes presented as a result of SEPP are that 84% of farmers have constructed compost pit and 90% of them have also adopted protection of the pit against sun as recommended by the training programme.
The comprehensive SWOT analysis about the bio-slurry programme in Nepal reveals many strengths and opportunities about the use of bio-slurry, some of which are the organic manure based farming and high number of livestock in Nepal, as well as the economic sustainability bioslurry provides due to its low cost. The analysis presents current technical and social constraints for the programme, and extensive recommendations as to what the next step should be in fully capturing all benefits of bio-slurry.
Training programme for Slurry Extension Officers (SEOs) on Extension Methods, and Training Management Fodder Production and Cattle shed improvement were conducted from September 29 to October 5, 1996 with the following objectives:
• To enable SEOs to select and use three appropriate extension methods for slurry management technology;
• To make SEOs capable of planning and implementing short duration training programme (1 to 3 days) for various target groups such as company's staff, masons, supervisors and biogas farmers on slurry management technology;
• To enable SEOs to explain important aspects of cattle shed improvement and green fodder production all the year round.
The training was conducted as planned. It started with pre-testing of the trainees (SEOs) and ended with post-testing that was conducted to assess whether SEOs have increased their level of knowledge, skill and attitudes to the desired level (stated objective of the training programme), especially on the training needs of the SEOs. Here learning evaluation was applied.
Reactions were collected form trainees in order to assess the effectiveness of the training programme as a whole up to the period of training completion. Results from both the learning and reaction evaluation indicated that the programme is able to achieve its specific training objectives to a great extent up to the period of training completion. However, its effectiveness in terms of effect and impact will have to be evaluated and observed in the long run once trainees have applied it in their working situations.
This report deals with the escalating challenge Cambodia faces in its agricultural sector for providing sufficient feeding to an increasing population, while also having improper soil management.
Based on field visits, interviews, regular meetings, training workshops, and joint analysis it was revealed that farmers used both organic (bio-slurry) and inorganic fertilisers but were unaware of the balance needed and required doses of fertiliser. Further, it appeared that farmers have limited access to improve crop management practices, specifically to fertiliser management. In a response to the problem, the current weaknesses, and further scope of improvement of present organisational setup of slurry extension component of NBP and subsidy system have been analysed in depth.
Extensive recommendations are offered on an organisational setup level (e.g. strengthen the linkage between Provincial Biogas Program Office-PBPO and Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture-CEDAC by involving CEDAC in the planning process), subsidy (e.g. provide subsidy to attract farmers for construction of standard compost hut, boundaries and shade), planning (e.g. bottom up planning approach is suggested where a seasonal planning meeting should be organized at province by the project director involving CEDAC provincial coordinator), development of training materials (e.g. a national consultant should be hired for developing a training manual on bio-slurry systems), training (e.g. strengthen user training by increasing its number, frequency, topics), farmers participatory action research (e.g. the participatory approach should be replaced by a demonstration one), monitoring and reporting (e.g.
monitoring system should be established as desk and field monitoring).
A collaborative study was conducted by Soil Chemistry Section, Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute Faisalabad and Pakistan Domestic Biogas Program (PDBP)/Rural Support Programs’ Network (RSPN) to evaluate the use of bio slurry, a by-product of bio gas plant for vegetable production.
Bio-slurry is a thick liquid that comes out of the biogas plant outlet and then flows into the slurry pits. As the slurry is ejected after a period of anaerobic digestion within the plant digester (about 50 days), thus, the slurry is sanitised, disinfected and turn the nutrients in more available form to plants. Therefore relative to farm yard manure which is normally piled up in the yard and less decomposed, bio-slurry contains readily available plant nutrients. A farming household who owns a biogas plant will have an advantage of a continuous supply of high quality manure for his crops.
According to MOU signed by both the organizations, the RSPN provided the financial assistant while Soil Chemistry Section conducted the research experiments at two locations i.e. at Soil Chemistry Section and at farmer’s filed to evaluate the use of bio-slurry for vegetable production.
The study was conducted with the following objectives:
1. The use of bio-slurry for vegetable production.
2. Comparison of bio-slurry with conventional use of farm yard manure.
3. Integrated use of chemical fertilisers with bio-slurry to reduce the cost of production and to protect the environment from pollution caused by the chemical fertiliser.
This report presents the outcomes of a four-day international bio-slurry tour organised by the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) together with Biogas Sector Partnership-Nepal (BSP Nepal). 7 countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Lao PDR, Nepal, Vietnam, Rwanda) participated in the tour, working together to identify the most successful extension methods in the different programs, to optimise bio-slurry extension activity plans, and to exchange on bio-slurry storage, treatment, transport and application methods during the monsoon season and/or in areas with high water tables. The tour comprised country presentations, field visits and group exercises where improved cattle shade, urine collection and toilet attachments were some of the noticeable improvements. The paper presents in detail the issues that require further action by relying on various country papers, field visits and exercises.
It was recommended that future research should address the decomposition, mineralization and release pattern of plant nutrients of bio-slurry from different substrates. Laboratory and on-farm farmers’ participatory research on bio-slurry management was also highly desired.
In terms of extension, the issues requiring further action included whole Family Approach for users training, Farmers Field School Approach in areas where plants were in cluster, and IPNS approach for research. Organisational issues included setting up of bio-slurry management unit at each country programme, and evaluating the present interest and capacity of companies in doing slurry activities. It was also recommended that similar study programmes were arranged twice a year in order to see the wet and dry season management of bio-slurry.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, in association with National Domestic Biogas and Manure Program (NDBMP) Bangladesh, organized a four-day International Bio-slurry Workshop and Study Tour in Bangladesh during 10-13 November, 2008. Fourteen participants from 6 countries of
Asia and Africa participated in the workshop and study tour.
The overall objective of the study tour is to enhance the exchange of knowledge and experience among bio-slurry extension officers in SNV supported programmes, with a focus on bio-slurry quality exchange, management and utilization approaches and methods, identification of the most successful extension methods/vehicles in the different programmes, and optimisation of bio-slurry extension activity plans.
This proceeding includes:
• Summary of country reports with regards to the status of bio-slurry management and utilization, limitations and future plan of the countries Vietnam, Lao PDR, Rwanda, Nepal, Ethiopia, Cambodia, Bangladesh
• Field visit experience
• Group discussions on further issues related to organizational management and research, training and extension of bio-slurry.
The international study tour has been instrumental in providing an organized platform for those working in the domestic biogas sector in different countries to share best practices on bio-slurry use at the micro level, and to identify potential stimulus as well as barriers to further optimize the use of bio-slurry.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, in association with the Dutch Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS), organised a two-day international workshop on 'Use of Bio-slurry from Domestic Biogas Plants' during the period 27-28 September, 2006.
The workshop was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and attended by 51 participants from 13 different countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. The objective was to create an organised platform for experts working in domestic biogas sector in different countries to share best practices on the use of bio-slurry at micro level and to identify potential stimulus as well as barriers to further optimise the use of bioslurry.
This workshop proceeding is intended to transfer the ideas and views of those attending the workshop to a wider audience of bio-slurry practitioners.
It is expected that this proceeding will contribute to the broader ongoing discussions about programmes and activities that will facilitate the inclusion of effective use of bio-slurry in initiatives on promotion and development of biodigester technology in different parts of the globe.
This workshop proceeding includes:
• Summary of country presentations of China, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Vietnam on the status of bio-slurry application;
• Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis carried out by the participants on the different aspects of use of bio-slurry;
• Country action plans prepared by respective participants on popularising the use of bioslurry as an organic fertiliser.
As much as possible, the issues raised by the participants during different sessions have been presented in their own words.
This study examines the important possibility of marketing biogas slurry as a value added product in Lao PDR.
The adoption of biogas digesters in the area has been slower than expected and the Biogas Promotion Project (BPP) expected more people to build digesters if aware for the market possibility for the waste product (slurry). The study area (Vientiane Capital Region) is an important agricultural zone with the production of rice, vegetables, fruit, by using organic and conventional farming methods. Although organic fertilisers such as manure, compost and crop residues were available, product markets were inefficient. Selling liquid slurry directly from the slurry pond was seen as a good option as it required little or no investment. The report discussed in detail the various advantages (e.g. slurry contains a full range of plant nutrients and micro-nutrients) and disadvantages (e.g. fresh slurry is bulky, and difficult to store, transport and apply compared to competing products such as chemical fertilisers) of biogas slurry with respect to its marketing potential.
As a most viable future action it was recommended that BPP focused on marketing liquid slurry as a specialty fertiliser for vegetable and fruit production. Further, organic vegetable firms were seen as the best target market for slurry sales because of their organisation into producer groups, followed by organic rice farmers and vegetable farmers also seen as an important market. According to the other extensive recommendations for future action, BPP should bring slurry sellers and potential buyers together to meet and exchange information.
The present study provides an extensive analysis on the social impact of latrine and non-attached biogas plants relating to the health hazards of biogas users (especially women and children), clinical examination of pathogenic organisms, and effects of the pathogens on human health.
The results of the study (structured questionnaires and samples collected from 10 regions – see Annex) in terms of status of latrine indicated that 98% of studied households (HHs) possessed latrine indicating their awareness of the health aspects. As for pollution, the majority of users used firewood if biogas did not meet total demand. 52% of the samples were proven free of pathogens and, fortunately, the results of the culture demonstrated clearly that all the collected samples of digested liquid slurry and slurry compost did not contain fatal bacteria like Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholarae-01. In terms of farm yard manure (FYM) and water samples, 36% of FYM samples were infected by pathogenic germs (Trichuria, Ascaris, Hookworm ova and larva) and none of the water samples were infected.
In order to effectively deal with the encountered pathogens, and to prevent diseases in the HHs, the research presents the effects of encountered diseases (Bacillary dysentery, Tapeworms, Trichomonas, etc.) on the human body. There are essential recommendations to deal with the problematic issues, among which the absolute need for BSP-N to prepare an instruction book on handling of slurry and health related issues, as well as raising mass awareness on various aspects of the excreta fed biogas plants.
This report presents a comprehensive physic-chemical analysis of bio-slurry and farm yard manure in order to solidify findings about the positive effects of bio-slurry with regard to its nutrients and additional physical attributes. Beneficial impacts of slurry on the agriculture system include its manorial value for crops, sustaining of soli fertility and moisture content, increase of crop yield, and others.
The results of the study (desk study, training to researchers and pre-testing of sample collection, sampling and sample collection, analyses of collected samples for physic-chemical properties) indicated that bio-slurry (both from LA and NLA) had higher manorial value than farm yard manure (FYM) and compost; and bio-slurry in liquid form has richer nutrient content than slurry compost. However, the use of balanced chemical fertiliser was also concluded to be necessary because of the need of applying large quantities of organic manure. Further, varied use of bio-slurry as plant nutrient, soil conditioner, fish feed, and pesticides has demonstrated tremendous beneficial impacts on the agriculture system as a whole, with a need of exploring its potential to maximum extent.
Alongside the extensive findings of the report, practical recommendations on the application of fertilisers and manures at farmer’s level are provided. Future actions needed incorporate the need to properly advise farmers how to use both chemical and organic fertilisers in a balanced way, conducting soil fertility trials, and advising farmers to periodically test the soil in order to know the status of nutrients.
The objective of the slurry extension programme-II (SEP-II) is to increase the effective market for biogas plants by maximising the benefit of the operated biogas plants through improvements of the use of slurry in crop production. The leading principle behind SEP II is that slurry extension should reach biogas plant owners through established active channels like the biogas companies that construct plants and HMG's Department of Agriculture that have country wide network of filed level workers such as JTs and JTA.
With the biogas farmers as main beneficiaries and biogas companies and JT/JTAs as the main institutional stakeholders in the programme are:
• Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC)
• HMG's Department of Agriculture
• SNV's Biogas Support Programme (SNV/BSP)
• Nepal Biogas Promotion Group (NBPG)
• NGO Coalition for Biogas and Alternative Energy (NCBAE)
Commitment and involvement of the above five actors will turn out to be the critical success factor for implementation of the programme. Therefore, a Slurry Co-ordination Committee (SCC) in which representatives of the five bodies have a seat is proposed for the implementation of the programme.
Roles and responsibilities of the involved institutions are well spelled out. However, it should be noted that during the development of this proposal, the Department of Agriculture was only marginally involved. Therefore, it is anticipated that incorporating the DOA fully in SEP-II may take the better part of FY 1998/99. This implies that initially, the programmes will start-off with through only one or two identified primary channels, the biogas companies.
The main objective of this experiment was to examine the effect of bio-slurry (effluent produced from biogas plant) on cereal and vegetable crops namely maize and cabbage.
The experimentation on maize shows that there is a general trend in the increase of maize grain yield in all treatments over the control. Application of slurry compost at 10 t/ha has resulted in highest yield increment of 23 percent compared to the control. Similarly, the second highest yield increment (16.5%) was brought about with the half dose of mineral fertiliser in conjunction with 5 t/ha of slurry compost. On the other hand, addition of FYM and full dose of chemical fertiliser with full dose of slurry compost gave almost the same yield difference of 13.9 percent and 13.0 percent, respectively. These findings clearly demonstrate the superiority of organic manure over the mineral fertiliser.
The experimental trials on cabbage show The highest yield of 69.6 ton per hectare has been produced by the application of a full dose of recommended fertiliser along with 20t/ha of slurry compost. The yield is 36.2 percent higher over the control. The second highest yield is recorded as a result of slurry compost treatment applied at 20t/ha. It is 28.4 percent higher than the control. Likewise, there is not much difference in the yield of cabbage due to application of liquid slurry. Comparatively biogas slurry in liquid form yielded 6.6 percent higher yields than the FYM treatment.
The overall objective of this study was to review currently existing literature on the effect of bioslurry (digested effluent from biogas plant) on crop production with a view to prepare a comprehensive volume for use by slurry extension workers and biogas policy makers.
The main gist of literature review contains:
• Manorial Value of Bio-slurry in Relation to Other Manures, Extension Educational Messages
• Effects of Bio-slurry on Crop Yields, Nitrification in the Context of Anaerobic Digestion Process
• Pathogens in Relation to Temperature
• Slurry Produced from Human Waste
• Slurry Research in Nepal
This report looks at the importance and highly positive impact of bio-slurry on the agriculture in Bangladesh. With the help of field trials and demonstrations, it was confirmed that bio-slurry organic fertilisers have affected crops in beneficial ways by increasing the yields of crops such as cabbage, onion, tomato, etc. Furthermore, bio-slurry has shown positive effects on restoring soil fertility which was at alarmingly low levels in Bangladesh (Integrated Plant Nutrition System - IPNS).
Bio-slurry is a 100% organic fertiliser that has been proven as the most suitable fertiliser for organic farming for certain high value crops in Bangladesh. As a response, the private company Grameen Shakti has implemented a national program aiming to promote the use of bio-slurry as organic fertilized and biogas for cooking and has started to market bio-slurry fertilisers with the brand Grameen Shakti Jaibo Sar. SNV-IDCOL.
Because most of the soil in Bangladesh has high variability (most soils are depleted) and low fertility, and farmers used mostly chemical fertilisers (resulting in under- and over- application of certain nutrients), a proper fertility management was seen as crucial, where mobilization and recycling of native organic resources into soil fertilisers was one of the top recommendations listed in this report. Such system would certainly reduce poverty and malnutrition, and would sustain self-sufficiency in food and fibre crops. The national government was said to play a vital role in resolving the fuel crisis in rural households and fertiliser crisis in Bangladesh agriculture by subsidizing the programme.