This article describes the biogas activities in Asia by highlighting the success stories of China, India, and Nepal. Further, the article describes the scaling up of the Asia Biogas Programme. Vietnam is highlighted and the National Biogas and Manure Programme in Nepal is described, as well as the Biodigester Support Programme in Cambodia. Further, the article continues with CDM as a financing instrument.
The report concludes that it is most unfortunate that the reference to projects that replace nonrenewable biomass has been removed from the small-scale CDM methodologies. It is of hope that alternative methods for calculating emission reductions for small-scale project activities that propose the switch from non-renewable to renewable biomass will become available soon.
This document presents basic information about biogas technology in the form of Biogas Digest Volume 4. The document contains 19 sections on different countries and regions. They are respectively:
• Biogas technology in Bangladesh
• Biogas technology in Belize
• Biogas technology in Bolivia (region Chochabamba)
• Biogas technology in Burundi
• Biogas technology in China (Sichuan)
• Biogas technology in Columbia
• Biogas technology in India
• Biogas technology in Orissa (India)
• Biogas technology in Sangli (India)
• Biogas technology in the Ivory Coast (region of Korhogo)
• Biogas technology in Jamaica
• Biogas technology on Java (province of Central Java)
• Biogas technology in Kenya
• Biogas technology in Morocco (region of Souss-Massa)
• Biogas technology in Nepal
• Biogas technology in Tanzania
• Biogas technology in Thailand
• Biogas technology in Tunisia (Sejenane, El Kef)
• Biogas technology in Vietnam
The overall objective of a domestic biogas programme is the dissemination of domestic biodigesters as an indigenous, sustainable energy source through the development of a commercial, market oriented biodigester sector. Revenue from carbon trading is sought to achieve this objective, because the technology reduces GHG emissions. This project design document form, describes the small-scale project activities of the CDM Project of Bagepalli Coolie Sangha in 2009.The purpose of this Biogas CDM Project activity is to set up 18,000 biogas plants (digesters) of 2 m3 capacity each for single households in 5 Taluks of Chickballapur District1 by the Coolie Sangha, and in this way replace Kerosene and Non-Renewable Biomass with biogas for cooking and hot water heating. These biogas units will be installed in a phased manner of 6,000 units per year for a period of 3 years. There are a lot of benefits for the families as described in the report.
It provides a technical description with an estimated reduction of emissions over the chosen crediting period, application of baseline and monitoring methodology including baseline development, project boundary, and a description of how the anthropogenic emissions of GHG by sources are reduced below those that would have occurred in the absence of the registered small-scale CDM project activity. The report focuses on different barriers and emission reductions. The application of a monitoring methodology, description of the monitoring plan, activity/crediting period, environmental impacts, and stakeholders’ comments are also described.
The overall objective of a domestic biogas programme is the dissemination of domestic biodigesters as an indigenous, sustainable energy source through the development of a commercial, market oriented biodigester sector. Revenue from carbon trading is sought to achieve this objective, because the technology reduces GHG emissions. This project design document form, describes the small-scale project activities of the CDM Project of Kolar Biogas Project in 2008.
The purpose of this Biogas CDM Project activity is providing biogas units to households in rural areas of Kolar District in Karnataka State in India. The project encompasses 10,000 households in all five Taluks in Kolar District – Srinivaspur, Kolar, Mulbagal, Malur, and Bangarapet. In each of the 10,000 households covered by the proposed project a family size biogas unit will be installed. The biogas unit will be of either 2m3 or 3m3 capacity depending on the number and type of cattle owned by the household and the number of people in the household.
It provides a technical description with an estimated reduction of emissions over the chosen crediting period, application of baseline and monitoring methodology including baseline development, project boundary, and a description of how the anthropogenic emissions of GHG by sources are reduced below those that would have occurred in the absence of the registered small-scale CDM project activity. The report also focuses on ex-ante calculation of emission reductions. The application of a monitoring methodology, description of the monitoring plan, activity/crediting period, environmental impacts, and stakeholders’ comments are also described.
This study evaluates the progress of the National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD) in India by taking into account the regular modification of the implementation strategy by the Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources (MNES) in order to improve the programme.
One of the main study findings (desk study, household survey) with regards to the top-down implementation approach suggested by MNES, was the substandard quality of construction and materials, overlooking of the eligibility and sustainability criteria, double counting and over reporting of achievements and a problem in fixing accountability for failure /non-functionality. In terms of physical performance, it has become evident that the actual achievement was much lower than what has been reported by MNES. In general, NPBD has not had significant impact as only 7% of the households were found to be using biogas, often as a supplementary source of fuel. Various reasons for this underachievement have been formulated and presented in the report (e.g. easy availability of other fuels, non-availability of cattle, etc.).
From these and other findings it has become clear that the potential of the NPBD has not been at all realized, and major technology developments were needed. Further, expanding non-domestic use of biogas in areas where commercial fuels were being used, and bringing a larger proportion of households in the programme were deemed as essential requirements in realizing the potential ofbiogas use. A comprehensive analysis of these and other causes of the problem, as well as recommendations for improvement can be found in the report.
This report analyzes the financial side of the Domestic Biogas Programme (DBP) in India by reviewing the financial instruments applied in the programme (based on various published reports and information from involved institutions).
A SWOT analysis evaluated the different aspects of the instruments and recommendations on improvement were provided respectively. Subsidy provided by the National Biogas and Manure Development Programme (NBMMP) played an important role in motivating prospective farmers. Institutional financing was another financial instrument applied, where the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) and the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) supported the biogas programme. Other institutions providing financial support included Local Bodies, International NGOs, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), Climate Exchange and the International Development Bank. The study has estimated that the percentage of subsidy received appears to be too low to attract more farmers. Further, the institutional financing was more popular among farmers due to the increase in the cost of plants and the increasing need to borrow. The carbon rebate has also increased in popularity, due to the projects undertaken by CDM and Chicago Climate Exchange NGO.
Key recommendations based on the SWOT analysis of individual financial products included the need to bring the investment subsidy to a level that decreased the payback period to less than 3 years, the need for more carbon rebate projects and more international support involvement. The rationale behind each recommendation, as well as additional detailed recommendations can be found in the report.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation was invited by the Steering Committee of the Energy for All Partnership initiated by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to lead a Working Group on Domestic Biogas in 15 Asian countries with the objective to construct 1 million units before 2015/2016. With more than 4 million biogas units installed in India, the need arose to partner with dedicated, professional organisations in India engaged in knowledge brokerage on domestic biogas and implementation of innovative biogas programmes. In this respect, a mission was undertaken to India in April 2010 on which this document provides a brief report.
A total of six organisations and one expert were visited by the mission: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), Asian and Pacific Centre for Transfer of Technology (APCTT) of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (EKN) in New Delhi, The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), SKG Sangha (Karnataka), and Punjab Energy Development Agency (PEDA). The report presents the findings per organization and overall findings and recommendations.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, with the financial support of the Netherlands Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS), organised a two-day international workshop on ' the Financing of Domestic Biogas Plants' during the period 23-24 October, 2008. The workshop conducted in Bangkok, Thailand, was attended by 68 participants from 21 different countries in Asia, Africa, Central America and Europe.
The overall objective of the international workshop was to exchange a maximum of information about the use of financial instruments for financing domestic biogas plants among the participants, practitioners, bankers, researchers and policy makers, and to arrive at clear status of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the use of the various financial instruments among the participants.
This brief report summarises the purpose, schedule, presentations and outcome of discussions related to the workshop. The workshop proceeding includes the summary of plenary presentations, Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis carried out by the participants on different aspects of financing domestic biogas plants (e.g. investment subsidy and credit).
Further there was a presentation of country papers by participants of China, India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Cambodia, and Rwanda. Additionally, two papers on carbon credit and financing biogas plants were presented. Finally, Country action plans were prepared by respective participants. The evaluation results clearly indicated that the workshop has been highly successful in achieving its objectives.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, in association with the Dutch Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS), organised a two-day international workshop on 'Use of Bio-slurry from Domestic Biogas Plants' during the period 27-28 September, 2006.
The workshop was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and attended by 51 participants from 13 different countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. The objective was to create an organised platform for experts working in domestic biogas sector in different countries to share best practices on the use of bio-slurry at micro level and to identify potential stimulus as well as barriers to further optimise the use of bioslurry.
This workshop proceeding is intended to transfer the ideas and views of those attending the workshop to a wider audience of bio-slurry practitioners.
It is expected that this proceeding will contribute to the broader ongoing discussions about programmes and activities that will facilitate the inclusion of effective use of bio-slurry in initiatives on promotion and development of biodigester technology in different parts of the globe.
This workshop proceeding includes:
• Summary of country presentations of China, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Vietnam on the status of bio-slurry application;
• Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis carried out by the participants on the different aspects of use of bio-slurry;
• Country action plans prepared by respective participants on popularising the use of bioslurry as an organic fertiliser.
As much as possible, the issues raised by the participants during different sessions have been presented in their own words.
The fifth meeting of network of experts was organised in Vientiane, Lao PDR, during the period April 3-4, 2008. This meeting of experts followed the internal Biogas/Renewable Energy Team Meeting of SNV Asia Region.
The overall objective of the meeting of the network of experts was to present and discuss possibilities for the improvements of the biogas appliances being used under the frameworks of different biogas programmes. The key question was: what are the major areas of enhancement of appliances to improve their efficiency, and what are the possible methods/mechanisms to do so?
This brief report summarises the purpose, schedule, presentations and outcome of discussions related to the fifth meeting of the SNV external biogas network.
Main activities of the meeting schedule included:
• Field visit to Vientiane Capital
• Presentation by Jeroen van Bruggen on carbon strategies for domestic biogas programmes
• Discussion, meeting and dinner with Lao biogas stakeholders and SNV/Lao PDR.
• Presentation by Dr. A.K. Kurchania, Professor and Head of the Department of Renewable Energy Sources, Udaipur, India, on the results and recommendations of the testing of biogas stoves and lamps by three institutes (Netherlands, China and India).
• Plenary discussion on the results and recommendations of the testing of biogas stoves and lamps by three institutes (Netherlands, China and India).
Group discussions, presentations and plenary discussion on functioning and possible improvement of biogas stove (including tap) and lamp, mixer device, dome gas pipe, main gas valve, water drain, pressure indicator and pipes & fittings.
The objective of this study was to obtain a thorough insight and vision as regards to the past and present activities of biogas sector in India at all levels (Planning and Policy, Infrastructure and Implementation, Financing, Construction, Beneficiaries, R&D etc.).
On the planning, policy and implementation level several actors have been active: the Khadi and Village Industries Commission of India (KVIC), DNES (Now MNES), NPBD (National Project on Biogas Development), Action for Food Production (AFPRO), registered in 1966 as a non-profit NGO,and the Non-Government Voluntary Organisation (NGVOs). On the finance level NABARD provides refinance support to the commercial banks for financing biogas plants and MNES disburses subsidy by means of its state and district nodal agencies at two instalments. The designs and construction levels deals with 6 to 7 models of biogas plants. But the models worth citing are KVIC and Deenbandhu, which are quite popular at the present moment.
Many beneficiaries are attracted to biogas programme because of subsidies. As the programme is target oriented, proper survey is not done to arrive at realistic situation. Many digesters have failed to lack of after-sale-services and also due to the negligence of the users. Until now India has little experience with regard to consumer organisation for biogas promotion.
Concerning R&D, MNES has recognised two centres (Udaipur and Coimbatore) for testing biogas appliances such as burners, lamps and dual-fuel engine. ISI marked burners are compulsorily required to be eligible for subsidies. Finally the study draws lessons from India.
This study presents an overview of lamps and stoves samples testing conducted by three institutes: Chengdu Energy Environment International Cooperation (CEEIC), Chengdu in line with Biogas Appliances Quality Inspection Center of the Ministry of Agriculture, People's Republic of China; Department of Renewable Energy Sources (DRES), College of Technology and Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur, India; and Kiwa Gastec
Certification (GASTEC). Stoves samples were obtained from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Lesotho, Nepal, Rwanda and Vietnam and lamps samples from Cambodia, Ethiopia, India and Nepal.
Study findings for both lamps and stoves are provided for each country individually. The general findings of the report indicated that no stove qualified for quality certification under both Chinese and Indian specifications. Further, the stove samples from Bangladesh and Cambodia have only met the minimal thermal efficiency standards. As for the lamps samples, the one from Cambodia performed better at CEEIC and DRES, while the lamp from India showed better luminous efficiency at GASTEC.
The study also discusses the main problems encountered with the stoves and the lamps, where some of the stoves problems include low heat flow (Bangladesh) and no air-intake (Cambodia & Bangladesh). Lamp problems included improper design (Ethiopia), small mud head (Nepal), etc. Based on the study findings specific recommendations were designed and presented in the report. For stoves, the most critical issue was the need for standardization of parts. Lamps recommendations included the necessary increase of burning area, increase in heat flow to improve thermal efficiency, etc.
This document presents a Project Design Document form (GS-VER-PDD) version 4 for India. This template of the PDD is applicable for micro-, small-, and large scale projects. The project activity is called Hassan Composite Vermicompost Biogas Project. The project has acquired financial aid to construct 516 plants on the basis of the VER market. The emission reductions form the vermicompost units are not being taken into account in the project activity. The purpose is to provide a 2m3 fixed dome (Deenbandu model) biogas plant and a vermicomposting unit to 516 families in the villages of Arakalgudu Taluk, Hassan District, Kamatake state, India. The families were selected from the total number of families in the district and interviewed if there is enough livestock available. The project will contribute to sustainable development of India in many ways described in the report. The methodology is indicative programme, baseline, and monitoring methodology for Small Scale Biodigester Voluntary Gold Standard, with the pre-project scenario with supressed demand chosen as the baseline scenario. This report contains the following chapters:
1) General description project activity
2) Application of a baseline methodology
3) Duration of the project activity/ crediting period
4) Application of a monitoring methodology and plan
5) Estimation of GHG emissions by sources
6) Environmental impacts
7) Stakeholders’ comments
Information on how to complete the PDD and how to obtain Gold Standard registration can be found in the project developer’s manual available on the Gold Standard website.
This validation report is written by DNV to validate the CDM project of Bagepalli Coolie Sangha in India with regard to the relevant requirements of the Gold Standard for Gold Standard VER project activities, as well as criteria for consistent project operations, monitoring and reporting.
The validation consisted of the following three phases: desk interview of the project design documents, follow up interviews with project stakeholders, the resolution of outstanding issues and the issuance of the final validation report and opinion. These have provided DNV with sufficient evidence to determine the fulfillment of stated criteria.
DNV states that the project correctly applies the approved small scale methodologies, AMS-I.E version 01”Switch from Non – renewable biomass for the thermal applications by the user“ and AMS-I.C version 13 “Thermal energy for with or without electricity”.
The total emission reductions from the project are estimated to be on the average 42 855 t CO2/year over the selected 7 year renewable crediting period. The emission reduction forecast has been checked, and it is deemed likely that the stated amount will be achieved given that the underlying assumptions do not change.
In summary, it is DNV’s opinion that the “Biogas CDM Project of Bagepalli Coolie Sangha” in India, as described in the PDD version 6 dated 27 August 2009, meets all relevant UNFCCC requirements for the CDM and correctly applies the baseline and monitoring methodology AMS-I.E version 01 and AMS-I.C version 13. DNV thus requests the registration of the project as a CDM project.