This Working Paper presents key findings and case studies from the partnership on Domestic Accountability between the Minister for Development Cooperation of The Netherlands and SNV. The partnership was initiated in 2008, and has been operational since in four countries in East and Southern Africa, i.e. Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia.
This Working Paper germinated in a meeting in Dar es Salaam (December 2010), bringing together SNV staff from various countries involved in the Domestic Accountability partnership with their respective Netherlands Embassies.
The Kenya Biogas programme is a component of the African Biogas Partnership Programme (ABPP), funded by the Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS) of the Netherlands’ Ministry of Foreign Affairs through two Dutch development NGO’s, the Humanist Institute for Cooperation with Developing Countries (Hivos) and the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV).
The overall goal of the Programme is to improve livelihoods of rural farmers through benefits of domestic biogas and develop of a commercially viable, market oriented biogas sector. In the first 2 years of implementation a total of 3,239 plants have been installed across the country, 477 rural youth trained and engaged in gainful activities as biogas masons and some 67 biogas construction companies engaged viable business.
Over this time a total of over 18,000 farmers have been reached through the Programme’s promotional and extension activities, further raising awareness on the need to use clean energy and increasing agricultural production through effective use of bio-slurry. The Programme is also a key in the development of National biogas standards in Kenya Bureau of Standards that are expected to regulate development of the biogas sector for sustained growth and sustainability.
The year 2011 was the second year of effective implementation of the Kenya National Domestic Biogas Programme (KENDBIP). The year saw a significant expansion in its partnership network with over 55 institutions and organizations from both the private and public sectors collaborating with the programme in the implementation of the various programme components, enhancing the programme’s outreach and service delivery to clients.
This study examines the possible set-up of a National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) in Senegal by clearly stating the steps needed in order to establish the programme, as well as functions needing urgent action by key actors involved in the programme.
Study findings (workshop, field visits, and interviews) indicated that the available institutional framework in the country had sufficient potential for biogas installations. The interest on the side of farmers in the biogas sector was also high. Ministry of Energy was considered as the most suitable institution in realizing a relationship with wider institutional context, and its Agence Sénégalaise d’ Electrification Rurale (ASER) - as the most appropriate implementation agency.
Study recommendations include the need for Ministry of Energy/ASER to determine, within the framework of the national budget allocation procedures, the potential Senegalese budgetary contribution on the basis of the feasibility study and its programme outline. Ministry of Energy/ASER also needs to connect itself with the ongoing process for establishing the programme and disseminating domestic biogas.
Recommendations to SNV WCA stated the urgent need for finalizing its conditions and intervention modes in biogas activities, as well as deciding on possible collaboration activities with ENDA TM. Further, SNV WCA needs to continue execute all necessary steps to be able to assign staff to the NDBP in Senegal as soon as all parties have committed themselves to the programme. The report also presents in detail all functions that need to be executed, as well as the most suitable actors for that purpose.
This study deals with the scope of the National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) in Rwanda, and more specifically serves as a reliable database on energy needs of rural integrated farming households. A survey was used to thoroughly assess individual households’ situation regarding energy, sanitation, health, environmental protection and agriculture, and income generation. 96.5% of surveyed households practiced subsistence or small scale market agriculture, and 99% of those used firewood for cooking fuel. However, 89% would use energy generated from animal and toilet waste for cooking and lighting, and bio-slurry as a fertiliser. Based on the survey results specific challenges and issues needing further attention were identified. NDBP activities included the introduction of biogas lamps in the programme and promotional campaigns at district level involving local authorities.
As for the selection criteria for potential implementation areas, it is important that the cattle keeping system is not the only indicator for the local biogas market potential, as even under zero grazing conditions the available biomass could be insufficient for a satisfying biogas production. For subsidies and micro-finance scheme, the efficient use of animal urine as mixing agent was said to play a key role to save water, together with rainwater harvesting. Further, a key priority for NDBP was to closely monitor the carbon credit market as it constantly develops and brings new opportunities. The rationale behind recommendations as well as detailed survey findings and future steps required can be found in the report.
Beekeeping has been carried out across many generations in Rwanda and plays a critical role in the livelihoods of the rural communities, although it has long remained traditional and of subsistence in nature. This is changing as beekeeping is increasingly taken up as a business enterprise; access to finance is however a key challenge for small entrepreneurs. SNV therefore initiated a Value Chain Financing Study (VCF) assessing the financial needs of current and potential beekeeping entrepreneurs, available opportunities from financial and other institutions, and identifying existing gaps hindering beekeeping entrepreneurs from accessing available financial services. The study also identified several best practices for adoption by SNV and other stakeholders towards enhancing the performance of the sub-sector in a sustainable way.
Article introduces briefly the history and status of biogas technology, as part of Ethiopian rural energy services. It elaborates on the development of a National Biogas Program with assistance from SNV. EREDPC was identified to coordinate the programme.
The artcile discusses the folowing topics:
- A step towards a national biogas program in Ethiopia;
- Rural Energy in Ethiopia;
- Institutional Arrangement;
- EREDPC and implementation experience of rural energy technologies;
- Status of biogas dissemination in Ethiopia;
- SNV and the Ethiopian National Biogas Program (NBP);
- Goal of the National Biogas Program;
- SNV Approach;
- Moments of success;
- Lessons Learnt;
Contact details are provided.
The aim of the reserach was to get a further understanding of the souvenir sector within the Zanzibar tourism industry. By focussing very much on the tourist perspective this survey explores the market demands and needs. By understanding the overall system it was then possible to analyse the market opportunities of Zanzibari products. This was to determine an appropriate course of action for increasing benefits to Zanzibaris working in the souvenir subsector.
This report presents the outcomes of a field visit in the Kaolack region in Senegal, initiated in order to obtain more information about the practices in this region for biogas use.
Study findings in terms of cattle keeping practices revealed that most cattle households grazed their animals for 6-8hrs a day and stabled them in their compound with a rope or in a basic stable. Further, a few examples of artificial insemination were seen to improve milk and meat cows, which indicated an
interest on the side of farmers to engage in innovative activities if they proved to be beneficial. Further, manure was used to fertilise the fields at the time of planting and water was available through boreholes.
Study findings in terms of size and cooking showed that families were bigger in number than initially expected by SNV (10-15 people). It also appeared that there was only one kitchen for each family available for cooking, with big stoves fuelled by fire wood, which was mostly purchased. During the field visit it became clear that potential biogas installations would not be able to fully satisfy family cooking demand.
In June 2010 SNV, together with IFAD, organised a conference on ‘brokering knowledge for upscaling best practices in Inclusive Markets Access in East & Southern Africa’, which brought together over 70 participants from 11 African countries from donor, public and private sector to share experiences. This report summarizes the main issues discussed during the conference, of which the main focus was seeking to bring about systemic change for larger-scale sustainable inclusive markets with a wider significance.
The main purpose of this study was to explore the potential of camel milk from the Isiolo district in Northern Kenya to access sustainable formal markets. And secondly, establish whether the value chain presents a business case for investments by the private sector and development agencies interested in increased livelihoods of pastoral communities and other actors involved in the value chain.
This publication has been produced as part of a series under the Building Advisory Practice (BAP) initiative of SNV East Africa; conceptualized and supported by a team of SNV staff and advisers. Lead consultant for the BAP initiative is Rob Sinclair.
The objective of this assignment is to facilitate the selection of an appropriate design for domestic biogas installations to be supported by the proposed programme in Uganda. In particular, the assignment addresses the following in detail:
• A proposal of the criteria for the selection of the most appropriate technology (performance factors);
• An overview of prices of (un-) skilled labour and construction materials in those locations suitable and
• potential for biogas promotion;
• A proposal of an appropriate design for domestic biogas plants;
• A proposal of an appropriate plant-size range for domestic biogas installations;
• Some detailed construction drawings for the proposed design in its proposed sizes;
• A detailed Bill of Quantities for the
• proposed design in its proposed sizes, and;
• A provision of a complete plant-costing overview for the proposed design in its proposed sizes, with a clear indication which costs can be born by the participating households in kind.
Most of the information is gathered through a survey that identifies prices of needed materials, agreement on performance factors and matching of appropriate existing plant designs with the performance factors as preparation for the constructors Workshop, a field visit and 2- day workshop were a number of relevant stakeholders participated.
This annual report provides more detail of the strategic position choices SNV made in East and Southern Africa in 2007 and illustrates our approach with case studies from our practice.