This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the conditions for helping households finance the construction of a biodigester. A micro-credit programme for biodigester users was jointly designed by the National Biodigester Programme (NBP), Netherlands Development Finance Company (FMO) and Microfinance Institutions (MFIs).
By using in-depth interviews, a household survey and a desk study, it was determined that the demand for biodigester market was significant, with 96.5% of the studied households possessing the capacity to operate a biodigester. The research for demand for micro-credit showed that households were indeed in need of a financial aid (84%) but the majority was unwilling to borrow credit due to fear of inability to repay it. The ones willing to borrow demanded a credit size of 400,000-1,200,000riels. The MFIs contacted (ACLEDA, Amret, CEB, Prasac, HURREDO) were interested in lending a micro-credit to biodigester users but were also concerned for the credit at it was for consumption and not production. It appeared that credit conditions desired by potential biodigester users were overall in line with MFIs offered conditions, but an interest rate gap was also in place.
Some of the extensive suggestions on how to alleviate the problem offered in the report place FMO in the centre of operations as a possible guarantor of default loans, among other duties. The challenges likely to arise because of a roll-out strategy (linking potential biodigester users with micro-credit), as well plausible solutions are presented as well.
This biodigester user survey evaluates the impact of biodigester installations on households in Cambodia based on interviews and structured questionnaires.
The survey found out that the main motivation for households to build a biodigester in the first place was to reduce firewood consumption which was expensive and difficult to find. Interestingly, more than 94% of households financed the construction solely from their savings. The satisfaction with Masons services provided was also extremely high (94%). The post construction training analysis revealed that 93% of interviewees received training on how to operate the plant. Other main findings indicated that households used biogas for both cooking and lighting. The ones who used it for cooking stated the speed with which they can cook as compared to firewood, as a main advantage. As for lighting, 94% of households have installed biogas lamps and were very satisfied with them. The overall satisfaction with the programme indicated that households were indeed pleased with the $100 subsidy they received, and that the satisfaction with the quality guarantee policy was also very high. Further, the biodigester installation has produced substantial financial savings for users and has increased the yield.
The overall study results indicated a very positive impact of biogas on all aspects studied. Despite this, improvement was desired in some areas of the programme, for which specific recommendations were provided (e.g. additional training on plant operation and maintenance was needed, initiatives to link poor clients with microfinance are needed, etc.).
This report presents the results of the Biodigester User Survey(BUS) which was commissioned in order to assess the socio-economic structure of beneficiary households, and reception, acceptance and impact of biodigesters.
Overall, the survey reported high degree of satisfaction with the biodigesters and indicated that all of them were put in use. The biodigester was fully financed by nearly 85% of households and all but one household received subsidy and was highly satisfied with it. An astonishing finding was the 92% decrease in the amount of money spent on cooking fuels. Another major finding was that the biodigester had no major impact on the use of chemical fertilisers. Although the data suggested an overall decrease in the use of chemical fertilisers, this only indicated a change in the overall pattern of fertiliser use, with bio-slurry replacing the direct application of dung. All households agreed that if more people were aware of the biodigester, much more plants would be built, which has led to the need for increased and improved promotional activities.
Some of the recommendations comprised based on the extensive analysis of survey results were the need for promotional activities to focus on the economic benefits of bio-slurry. A more comprehensive analysis of the results, supported with graphs and visual aids can be found in the report.
The National Biodigester Programme of Cambodia has undertaken a Biodigester User Survey (BUS) with two main objectives:
The biodigester user profile details on the socio-economic condition of the households; numbers of animals owned; and cooking practices. Awareness of biogas technology and decision making in the households is surveyed, as well as the construction costs for biodigesters and loans provided. Mason skills and trainings, like bio-slurry or operation trainings, are assessed.
The study elaborates on the performance of biodigesters and the owner’s satisfaction levels. Savings in terms of time and finances provide insight in the effects of switching to biogas use. The few negative elements found in the survey are far outweighed by the enormous benefits of the biodigesters to the rural farmers’ lives. The biodigesters result in a sustainable development, especially through the incredible improvement in the cooking environment, with no more smoke, soot or ashes; the quality of the biogas light is evaluated brighter than fluorescent lights; and the organic bio-slurry fertiliser increasing rice and vegetable yields and improving the soil quality.
The National Biodigester Programme of Cambodia has undertaken a Biodigester User Survey (BUS) with three main objectives:
A sample of 150 households was chosen out of the total households in the 12 chosen districts. The biodigester user profile details on the socio-economic condition of the households; numbers of animals owned; and cooking practices.
Awareness of biogas technology and decision making in the households is surveyed, as well as the construction costs for biodigesters and loans provided. Mason skills and trainings, like bio-slurry or operation trainings, are assessed.
The study elaborates on the performance of biodigesters and the owner’s satisfaction levels. Savings in terms of time and finances provide more insight in the effects of switching to biogas use. The survey provides detailed conclusions and recommendation to the programme.
The overall objective of the first phase of the National Biodigester Programme (NBP) is ‘The dissemination of domestic biodigesters as an indigenous, sustainable energy source through the development of a commercial, market oriented biodigester sector in selected provinces of Cambodia’. The programme is currently operational in 8 provinces after being started in 3 provinces in April 2006. This ToR has 5 sections. The first describes the 2 principal objectives of the BUS and its specific objectives. The second is about the survey sample. The approach and methodology is described in the third section, and the fourth one contains the work schedule. Finally, the fifth section elaborates on deliverables with paragraphs on proposal of the consultant, inception report, draft biogas user survey report, the final biogas user survey report, and biogas user survey workshop.
The success or failure of any biodigester depends mainly upon the suitability of the design, site for construction and quality of construction works, as well as quality of construction materials and workmanship involved during construction. This booklet provides the extensive information on various methods for selecting the appropriate size and site for construction, as well as construction work steps related to the Farmer’s Friend model (2005) of biodigester.
First, mason’s responsibilities are explained. Second, the report continues with the sizes of available biodigesters and the quantity of feeding required. Then, the components of the biogas plant and instructions as to how to select the appropriate size are described. It continues with construction materials and appliances, and the selection of the construction site. Finally, the plant construction is explained from lay-out work to the construction of compost pits, finishing work and instructions to users.
If the concerned mason/plumber strictly follows the instruction as described in this construction manual, the biodigester will function properly with the anticipated efficiency and the owner will get the return of his/her investment. This will encourage his/her relatives and neighbours to install biodigesters. However, if the biodigester functions poorly, nobody will be motivated to install it. Poor quality plants will harm the reputation of biogas technology and will have serious negative effects on promotion and extension activities. The masons should, therefore, be well aware that good quality plants will certainly increase the rate of installation with the demonstration effect that ultimately benefits itself, the farmer, and the country as a whole.
Report on the feasibility study for a biodigester support programme in the Kingdom of Cambodia (2005).
This study assesses the feasibility of setting-up a national biodigester programme (NBP) in Cambodia (by relying on reports, studies, interviews, workshops, etc.).
Study findings indicated that households in rural Cambodia depend for more than 90% on fuel wood and that it has become gradually more difficult to meet their daily needs due to the insufficient fuel wood sustainable production. Based on these and other findings, it was established that NBP has high potential and could tremendously benefit the country by improving quality of life of households, by creating an integrated farming system, etc.
The key recommendations provided in order to set-up the programme included the creation of a national Biodigester Programme Office (BPO) to establish and coordinate the different activities that needed to be undertaken, as well as the leading roles NGOs, financial institutions, and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) should play. As for technology, focus on quality of information, construction
and after-sales services was pointed as key references. Finance recommendations specified the need for finance to be channelled through existing banking institutes (e.g. Association of Cambodian Local Economic Development-ACLEDA and Micro Finance Institution- AMRET). To commercialize the programme, establishment of local biodigester enterprises was strongly encouraged. Further, integrated farming references pointed the need for research on the use of the full potential of digester effluent and dissemination of the research results to be an integrated part of the programme. The extensive recommendations, supported by facts, figures and analysis can be found in the report.
National Biodigester Programme (NBP) is a joint development between the Cambodia Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) and the Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV) aimed to disseminate domestic biodigesters as an indigenous, sustainable energy source through the development of a commercial, market oriented, biodigester sector in eight selected provinces.
The validation is an independent evaluation by a Designated Operational Entity (DOE) that a project fulfils Gold Standard validation requirements. Validation is part of the Gold Standard project cycle and will finally result in a conclusion by the executing DOE whether a project activity is valid and should be submitted for registration to the Gold Standard.
The validation scope is defined as an independent and objective review of the project design and project documentation. The documents are reviewed against the criteria stated in:
It is SQS’ opinion, that the project meets all relevant criteria of the listed references and correctly applies the approved methodology and therefore SQS request the registration of given Gold Standard project.
This report deals with the escalating challenge Cambodia faces in its agricultural sector for providing sufficient feeding to an increasing population, while also having improper soil management.
Based on field visits, interviews, regular meetings, training workshops, and joint analysis it was revealed that farmers used both organic (bio-slurry) and inorganic fertilisers but were unaware of the balance needed and required doses of fertiliser. Further, it appeared that farmers have limited access to improve crop management practices, specifically to fertiliser management. In a response to the problem, the current weaknesses, and further scope of improvement of present organisational setup of slurry extension component of NBP and subsidy system have been analysed in depth.
Extensive recommendations are offered on an organisational setup level (e.g. strengthen the linkage between Provincial Biogas Program Office-PBPO and Cambodian Centre for Study and Development in Agriculture-CEDAC by involving CEDAC in the planning process), subsidy (e.g. provide subsidy to attract farmers for construction of standard compost hut, boundaries and shade), planning (e.g. bottom up planning approach is suggested where a seasonal planning meeting should be organized at province by the project director involving CEDAC provincial coordinator), development of training materials (e.g. a national consultant should be hired for developing a training manual on bio-slurry systems), training (e.g. strengthen user training by increasing its number, frequency, topics), farmers participatory action research (e.g. the participatory approach should be replaced by a demonstration one), monitoring and reporting (e.g.
monitoring system should be established as desk and field monitoring).
The International Workshop on Inclusive Planning and Financing of National Programmes on Domestic Biogas in Asia was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from 10-12 November 2010.
The objective of the workshop was to provide a dedicated forum for the exchange of knowledge and experience on the inclusive planning and financing of national programmes on domestic biogas between international practitioners, experts and policy makers.
This workshop report provides an overview of the sessions and the following key questions discussed:
• What is required to execute the programmes in a qualified, integrated and sustainable manner?
• What will be the required budgets for biogas plants installation, sector development and international technical assistance?
• What are the short and medium term funding sources?
• What are the opportunities to establish a regional basket fund?
• Is carbon financing truly feasible?
• Which investments are required from the side of the farmers?
• To what extent can national and local governments provide financial support?
The report includes a programme schedule, list of participants and brief country reports resulting from the sessions.
The seventh meeting of the experts’ network was organised in Hanoi, Vietnam, during the period April 8-9, 2009. This meeting of experts followed the internal Biogas/Renewable Energy Team Meeting of SNV Asia Region.
The overall objective of the meeting of the network of experts was to share the lessons learned, and to discuss possibilities for improvement on the training activities related to domestic biogas programmes. The discussion focussed particularly on the weaknesses/problems or evident successes of the training activities conducted so far by the different biogas programmes, and the possible solutions to overcome the problems, as well as prospects to share the success. The key
question was: how to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of all biogas and bio-manure related training activities?
This external network meeting on domestic biogas consisted of a field visit to provincial biogas office and biogas households in Ha Tay Province near Hanoi (8th April), and a working meeting on biogas training activities (9th April 2009). An overview and evaluation of training activities under biogas programmes in China, Nepal, Vietnam, Cambodia and Bangladesh was given. Further, there were group discussions, presentations and plenary discussions held.
4th meeting of network of experts on domestic biogas private sector development in the framework of national domestic biogas programmes: a brief overview of activities and outcome of discussions (2008).
The fourth meeting of the experts’ network was organised in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, during the period November 29-30, 2007.
The objective was to present and discuss possibilities for the development of the private sector in national programmes on domestic biogas. The key question was “Which strategies could be effectively formulated and implemented, both from the side of the government for the enabling of the business environment as well as from the side of the private sector?”
The meeting highlights were:
• Field visit to various communities in Takeo Province to experience the Cambodian Country-side, farming families and learn about the biodigester dissemination practices of the National Biodigester Programme (NBP).
• Group discussion and workshop on specific issues related to private sector mobilisation. Mr. S. Yohanes Iwan Baskoro form GERES-Cambodia presented a paper on ‘Promoting Entrepreneurship and Empowering Supply Chain Management’ related to the Improved Cook Stove Programme in Cambodia.
• Paper presentation on SME and outcomes of private sector development by Mr. Tony Knowles, Director of SME Cambodia and Private Sector Development in Rural Cambodia and Mr. Jan Lam from SNV/Cambodia. Mr. Ram Prasad Dhital, Renewable Energy Sector Support Coordinator in Alternative
Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC), Nepal, also presented a paper on ‘Enabling Private Sector Development in the Biogas Support Programme (BSP) in Nepal’.
Finally the report summarises all group presentations and discussions, and presents an evaluation.
The National Biodigester Programme (NBP) Cambodia has executed a monitoring survey for her Voluntary Gold Standard (VGS) project. The VGS project is located in South-East Cambodia and covers eight provinces. The monitoring activities are executed according to the monitoring plan in the Project Design Document and the Gold Standard Passport. The monitoring period I runs from 24-5-2009 to 31-08-2010.
The survey population is 8,571 biodigesters built as of 31-08-2010. The survey strategy is a stratified sampling approach, where first 12 districts were randomly selected and 120 households were randomly selected.
The main findings of the monitoring survey are:
The VGS project has a tremendous impact on sustainable development: 100% uses clean biogas, households save $6.32 per month on fuel and $52 per year on chemical fertiliser. The VGS project has a net inflow of revenue of $2,123,508 for monitoring period I. Based on the outcome of the monitoring survey, the claims the following number of Gold Standards Verified Emission Reductions (VER): 34,112.
This study discusses the progress of the ongoing National Biodigester Programme (NBP) in Cambodia that targets individual farming households who have the potential of producing bio-gas. Based on the realistic profile of biodigester construction companies (by using desk studies, field visits, meetings and discussions), essential future actions are discussed in detail.
Although NBP strongly promoted Farmer’s Friend type biodigesters, NBP’s implementation strategy had multiple limitations (e.g. piloting phase covers only a limited number of provinces). Despite the critical mass development through marketing and promotion, it appeared that it has not yet reached a large number of potential clients requesting a digester. Further, the programme currently used the private sector in the implementation component but the sector did not show much interest in building NBP.
It was also evident that the construction sector in the country lacked a proper environment as standards were not enforced and there was no adequate supervision. This calls for NBP to develop their own register where suitable companies are listed. This report provides the basis for such desired company profiles (e.g. NBP should have at least one person who has been trained as an NBP-mason, because NBP-certified masons are key figures in the implementation). Further recommendations (see chapter 7) included the need for NBP to re-format the cost estimates for biodigesters aiming for transparency in order to improve cooperation with the private sector, as well as keeping its training programmes aligned with programme development up-to-date.
Programme arrangement and implementation document: National Biodigester Programme in Cambodia (2006).
This paper describes the progress of the first phase of the National Biodigester Programme (NBP) in the dissemination of domestic biodigesters in developing a commercial, market oriented biodigester sector in Cambodia. A Programme Arrangement has been established between the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) and SNV Netherlands Development Organization.
The study has determined that efforts in the fields of marketing, financing, etc were needed to successfully complete the first phase of NBP. Promotion was to be undertaken by building contractors and mason teams, while construction, annual maintenance and repair were to be executed by registered commercial companies which would be only allowed to operate after completing a technical training.
Financing was to include an investment subsidy and farmers’ contribution, where the subsidy would serve as a promotion tool that would lower the financial threshold for farmers who have technical potential but lack financial means. The farmers’ contribution was determined to come from farmers’ own reserves or from bank loans. Applied research and development was to focus on the development and modification of plants to reduce costs and improve quality. The main focus of the extension would be on the optimal use of biodigester effluent.
The study presents a comprehensive analysis of the considerable benefits of biodigesters, possible risks and challenges, as well as potential ways to resolve them (e.g. some of the costs and many of the benefits of the programme are in the non-market sphere and this makes it difficult to determine financial and economical values).
This report presents the revised study of the original CDM baseline study conducted in 2006. The original study was conducted under the authority of the National Biogas Program (NBP), to study the potential GHG mitigation resulting from the adoption of domestic biodigesters.
In the beginning of June 2006, a survey amongst 300 randomly selected households with the technical potential for a biodigester was conducted in the NBP’s 6-targeted provinces (Kampong Cham, Svay Rieng, Prey Veng, Kampong Speu, Takeo and Kandal) in southeast Cambodia. The revised baseline study includes two additional provinces, Kampot and Kampong Chhnang.
The survey showed that a significant proportion of the households have no access to basic sanitation and often have health problems. They consume mainly wood as cooking fuel and the majority use inefficient cooking stoves. The main lighting fuel is kerosene.
The GHG emissions were calculated for each type of Animal Waste Management System (AWMS) and the baseline fuel consumption. The main methodology used is the GS-VER biodigester methodology and the IPCC 2006 guidelines to ex-ante estimate baseline, project and the emission reductions. The GHG emission from wood burning is only considered when it originates from a non-renewable source. The NRB analysis determined a NRB share of 70.7% for both collected and purchased wood. Total GHG emission is calculated by combining AWMS and wood fuels emissions. The annual baseline and project emission was estimated to be respectively 5.38 tCO2eq and 0.46 tCO2eq per average household, the emission reductions (ER) are therefore 4.92 tCO2eq/household/year.
The SNV Domestic Biogas Newsletter provides interesting short articles on SNV-supported countries worldwide. The seventh issue (September 2012) presents:
• Production rate of biogas plants increased
• International workshop on domestic biogas in Asia
• SNV and FAO release Myanmar biogas feasibility study
• Rwanda: charging your phone with cow dung
• ISO certificate for Bangladesh biogas
• Renewed online Renewable Energy library launched
• Knowledge networking of domestic biogas in Asia
• Pakistan Domestic Biogas Programme newsletter released
• The Arusha Tale
• Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Vietnam
• Biodigester Programme wins first Energy for Life Award
• Innovative microcredits for Cambodian biogas users
The lead institution for the National Biogas Program (NBP) in Cambodia is the Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Fisheries (MAFF). During the first 15 months of the program 6,400 digesters were installed. For the consumers there multiple potential benefits of participating in the program. At a wider level, the use of biogas can contribute to reduced deforestation and climate change mitigation as an average household in the program now consumes 2,200 Kg less of firewood at an annual basis.
One prominent obstacle to the dissemination of biogas digesters in Cambodia is the lack of cash among farmers, combined with absence of affordable credit products. The NBP has therefore
partnered with financial institutions (such as FMO, PRASAC-MFI and Amret MFI) to design a special credit scheme that provides funding for the biogas investment to household that otherwise could not afford to participate in the program which this report describes. First the report presents the context of the programme with the terms and conditions for the biodigester credit scheme. Secondly, the method/intervention in which is focused on what the programme needs to do at provincial level in
order to help farmers receive a loan. Thirdly is elaborated on stakeholders, their roles, and relationships. Fourthly the report presents the outcomes and impacts. The report ends with key
lessons that were identified during the programme implementation and future challenges of the programme.