A rapid assessment of the strategic options available for wastewater, drainage and solid waste management for Sia, a small town population 11,457, 20 km north of Hue in Thua Thien Hue (TTH) Province in Vietnam has been carried out. There is no centralized reticulated sewerage system, and the predominant sanitation system is septic tanks. Drainage and flooding is a problem in Sia in four low lying areas - representing a health risk.
A rapid assessment of the strategic options available for wastewater, drainage and solid waste management for Thuan An, a small Class V town population 20,567, 15 km from Hue in Thua Thien Hue (TTH) Province in Vietnam has been carried out. There is no centralized reticulated sewerage system, and the predominant sanitation system is septic tanks. Drainage and flooding is a problem in Thuan An with 10 days of flooding per year in the wet season.
This intern thesis assesses the economic effect on a household level of using bio-slurry for tea production. In total, one hundred farmers have been asked about current and previous data on the quantity of tea, the price obtained per kilogram of processed tea and the expenditures on both pesticides and chemical fertiliser.
It was concluded that using bio-slurry results in a higher quantity of tea production per sao throughout the whole year. After bringing in the inflation effect the tea cultivated with bio-slurry still obtained a higher price per kilogram of processed tea. The difference in the summer period however was not statistically significant.
Farmers saved money on chemical fertiliser and pesticides. The total average savings (2007) amounted to 2 631 986 VND in total: 2 100 277 VND was saved on chemical fertilizer and 531 619 VND was saved on pesticides.
The increased yields and prices resulted together in an income generating effect of 3 751 509 VND. The income saving and generating effect together result in a total economic impact of 6 383 495 VND per year on a household level. The income effect is larger than the total average investment costs of the biogas installation. After this research it has become clear that from an economic point of view, the bio-slurry is more valuable than the biogas alone.
This report was undertaken as a joint effort between the Asian Development Bank and SNV in support of the Regional Technical Assistance Project 6518, “Promoting Inclusive Growth through Business Development at the Base of the Pyramid.” This updated final report builds on an initial draft report finalized at the end of December 2010 developed primarily by SNV with support and input from the Asian Development Bank. The data and information gathered and analyzed for the market scoping study indicated that
an inclusive business private equity fund is feasible in Vietnam (provided Laos, Cambodia and Thailand are integrated into a wider Mekong Fund to strengthen returns, diversify risk, and increase impact).
The report is the outcome of an evaluation study conducted to access household biogas plant models in Vietnam. Two biogas models: KT1 and KT2 are officially being used in the project “Biogas Program for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Vietnam” which has constructed 75,000 household biogas plants so far. To reach the target of 165,000 household biogas plants by 2010; reduce the investment cost; facilitate construction procedure and provide more choices of biogas models to the households, the study was conducted in Soc Son, Hanoi (representative for the North) and My Tho (Tien Giang) (representative for the South) to:
On the basis of the evaluation and comparison of different household model, the study recommends the usage of KT1 and KT2 in exiting provinces, composite biogas and KT31 in new provinces, and the nylon bag biogas in both new and old provinces, though each one with some given criteria (can be found in the report). It also suggests for slurry treatment and developing and stimulating National Technical Regulation on animal waste water and further study on other biogas models having advantages that could be introduced in the project.
Detailed information on methodology, selected designs, demonstrated pilot models and advantages and disadvantages of each model can be found in the report.
This study explores the possibilities for establishing a sustainable financing scheme for a biogas programme in Vietnam.
The household survey conducted revealed that 78% of households would like to build biogas plants, while the ones who did not want to build the plant were relatively poor and lacked knowledge of biogas. 75% of households have an already existing bank credit. The Vietnam Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (VBARD), the Vietnam Bank for Social Policy (VBSP) and the People’s Credit Fund (PCF) were the three formal institutions operating the microcredit programs.
It appeared that very few of the already constructed plants have been financed by loans from financial institutions, due to various constraints described in the report (e.g. investment in biogas does not bring direct benefit in terms of cash income). As a response, specific criteria for financing biogas users framework were created and several options were presented for the management and operations of a biogas fund (e.g. an independent biogas facility is set up by FMO, etc.). The
framework for setting up the credit scheme did not involve creating new institutions but instead MFIs extending credit to rural households.
Based on the comprehensive analysis of the credit system and on evaluating the proposed options, wide-ranging recommendations in terms of organisational framework, loan terms, piloting the scheme, general administrative procedure, strengthening bank and MFI institutional capacity, as well as formalizing biodigester construction teams were designed and presented in the report.
Official coverage figures for rural water supply make us hopeful - MDG targets for water will likely be met. Yet, the disappointing reality is that only a fraction of this is functional and providing regular water supply that is safe for drinking. The premature deterioration of ‘improved’ water supply makes unreliable and unsafe water services a daily reality for large parts of the rural population in Asia.
SNV recognises that providing functional and sustainable water supply services is a challenge that goes far beyond coverage at a given point in time. Increased capacity at all levels is essential for sustainability.
This Practice Brief highlights various approaches used to promote gender equality in the agriculture; water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); and renewable energy (RE) sectors in Asian countries. SNV Asia has provided extensive capacity-building support in these sectors while putting ‘inclusive development’ at the forefront of the development agenda. The Practice Brief is an attempt to document practices from the field based on successful experiences of SNV in Bhutan, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Nepal and Vietnam. It aims to be a quick reference for development practitioners (within and outside SNV) who are committed to mainstream gender in these three sectors.
This guide for using bio-slurry for commercial fishponds was developed as part of an experimental study to estimate the effects of using bio-slurry in fish ponds and identify methods for using it. The aim is to carry forth some information to help farmers use bio-slurry from biogas for growth out ponds.
It describes the pond preparation; fingerlings selection; bio-slurry preparation; method of applying the effluent; feed monitoring; pond environment monitoring and fish health.
Bio-slurry from biogas production has many advantages when used in aquaculture (reduced risk of infection in fish; increasing the growth rate of fish because of more effective nutrient enrichment aquatic biota in the pond). The growth rate can increase, and the survival rate of fish as well, while reducing the coefficient of food. As a result, ultimately it increases the economic efficiency of the pond compared to the fresh material used to fertilise ponds.
The International Workshop on Inclusive Planning and Financing of National Programmes on Domestic Biogas in Asia was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from 10-12 November 2010.
The objective of the workshop was to provide a dedicated forum for the exchange of knowledge and experience on the inclusive planning and financing of national programmes on domestic biogas between international practitioners, experts and policy makers.
This workshop report provides an overview of the sessions and the following key questions discussed:
• What is required to execute the programmes in a qualified, integrated and sustainable manner?
• What will be the required budgets for biogas plants installation, sector development and international technical assistance?
• What are the short and medium term funding sources?
• What are the opportunities to establish a regional basket fund?
• Is carbon financing truly feasible?
• Which investments are required from the side of the farmers?
• To what extent can national and local governments provide financial support?
The report includes a programme schedule, list of participants and brief country reports resulting from the sessions.
SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, in association with the Dutch Directorate General for International Cooperation (DGIS), organised a two-day international workshop on 'Use of Bio-slurry from Domestic Biogas Plants' during the period 27-28 September, 2006.
The workshop was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand and attended by 51 participants from 13 different countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. The objective was to create an organised platform for experts working in domestic biogas sector in different countries to share best practices on the use of bio-slurry at micro level and to identify potential stimulus as well as barriers to further optimise the use of bioslurry.
This workshop proceeding is intended to transfer the ideas and views of those attending the workshop to a wider audience of bio-slurry practitioners.
It is expected that this proceeding will contribute to the broader ongoing discussions about programmes and activities that will facilitate the inclusion of effective use of bio-slurry in initiatives on promotion and development of biodigester technology in different parts of the globe.
This workshop proceeding includes:
• Summary of country presentations of China, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Vietnam on the status of bio-slurry application;
• Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis carried out by the participants on the different aspects of use of bio-slurry;
• Country action plans prepared by respective participants on popularising the use of bioslurry as an organic fertiliser.
As much as possible, the issues raised by the participants during different sessions have been presented in their own words.
The Vietnamese government has recognised the need for development of alternative energy to substitute its dependency on fossil fuels and has developed a vision and strategy on biofuels. Part of this is to recover so called waste lands (degraded or low-fertile) through the production of Jatropha oil seeds. This has the potential to bring a stable income for tens of thousands of rural farmers, especially in the coastal areas of central and southern Vietnam.
Green Energy Vietnam (GEV) started with the cultivation of Jatropha on infertile lands in Ninh Thuan, Quang Tri and Thua Thien Hue provinces. GEV approached SNV to support them in the development and set-up of a new company business model through which they can secure feedstock production from smallholder farmers. Leading in this business model will be to adhere to international sustainability guidelines as they are currently being developed by the Roundtable for Sustainable Biofuels. Essential elements here: access to land for smallholders and social and environmental sustainability.
SNV provides direct advisory to the company, reviewing and commenting their farmer contract systems, improving their farmer extension materials etc. SNV, in collaboration with local capacity builders also provides training services on agricultural extension for company staff and group leaders.
The case study addresses that it's difficult to talk about impact at this stage, but potential impacts for smallholders who can produce Jatropha are mentioned as well as some lessons learned.