The overall objective of this study was to identify the constraints and opportunities in promoting the credit for biogas plants in the programme areas of Pakistan Domestic Biogas Programme. The idea was to establish feasibility of biogas credit.
Specific objectives are:
It clearly emerges from the research that there are common challenges on both supply and demand side of the biogas credit equation. Here is a summary of issues highlighted by this research: supply-side (Lack of knowledge and information, undefined target market, low-cost source funding, product development) and demand-side (lack of awareness, profile mismatch, access to biogas credit, product availability).
Given the nature of technological adoption both in terms of biogas and biogas credit, we propose a model that simultaneously at multiple levels and addresses issues related to:
The ‘biogas user survey’ is an annual and very important chain in the series of events in monitoring and control used by the project.
The objectives of this survey are:
• To assess the level of satisfaction of the biogas Users in terms of the benefits and the functioning of the biogas plants and the outcome of installing biogas on household in relation to energy, health and sanitation, agricultural productivity, socio-economic condition, environment and gender;
• To provide staff with hands on experience of carrying out the Biogas User’s Survey in order to gain insights that will be required to facilitate similar exercise which will be outsourced in the subsequent years;
• To make recommendations for the improvement of the programme performance in coming years.
The survey covered all biogas plants that were operating for 3 months or older. An extensive questionnaire was the main tool used for the survey and was the basis for the household interviews (see annex 2).
In general the construction quality of the plants was satisfactory which was also indicated by the proper functioning of the plant and resulting user satisfaction. 94% of the plants were fully or partly functional and not much of maintenance was carried out on them. Still indication so far is that households are experiencing time and money saved from the use of biogas. Although biogas is not completely replacing the use of firewood and LPG, a significant amount of cash savings is being realised where biogas has largely replaced firewood.
The objectives of this Biogas Users’ Survey are to:
- Determine the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the biogas user households;
- Assess the level of satisfaction in terms of the benefits and functioning of the biogas plants;
- Determine the outcome of installing biogas plants on households with regards to energy, health and sanitation, agricultural productivity, socio-economic conditions, environment and gender aspects.
A qualitative and quantitative approach has been used for collecting data from the selected users. A structured questionnaire was mainly administered focusing on user satisfaction aspects, economic effectiveness of the biogas plant, and other related socio-economic impacts after the installation of the plant on the lives of the family members. A total of 130 households were surveyed in seven districts of Punjab.
The findings of this survey indicate that biogas is an effective source of fuel quite feasible for the rural areas of Pakistan. The users’ feedback reflects a high level of satisfaction in terms of functionality, operations and manageability of the plant. However, the cost of the plant does hamper scaling up of the programme as most households don’t have the required cash for its installation.
Recommendations emerging from the study are mainly:
- There is a need to strengthen the marketing mechanisms and promote the biogas use at the rural level through more hands-on mobilization and motivation;
- The programme and biogas companies need to strengthen their monitoring, supervision and follow-up mechanisms as these are important components for the sustainability and scaling of the programme.
The success or failure of any biodigester depends mainly upon the appropriateness of the design, suitability of site for construction and quality of construction works including quality of construction materials and workmanship involved during construction. This booklet highlights the methods for selecting appropriate size and site for construction as well as steps of construction works related to the Modified GGC Model of Biogas Plant for Pakistan. This manual is prepared to assist the masons to successfully carry out their anticipated roles in constructing quality biodigesters.
Further, the report elaborates on masons’ responsibilities; the components of a biogas plant; steps for the installation of a biogas plant, including the selection of the correct size and construction site and quality standards of construction materials and appliances; proper construction of the biogas plant. This part describes the whole process of plant construction from the plant lay-out and digging of the pit to construction of the inlet tank, fitting of pipeline and appliances and checking the gas and water tightness. The report ends with a conclusion.
SNV Netherlands Development Organizationand Winrock International are providing technical support for launching a national level Pakistan Domestic Bio-gas Program (PDBP) in Pakistan through the Rural Support Program Network (RSPN). Over a period of four years the program targets to construct 30,000 domestic bio-gas plants. RSPN contracted SEBCON to carry out the Energy Utilization of Demand Baseline Amount in order to understand the energy demand and utilization pattern of rural farmers, the projects economic and social impacts, to estimate the impact of the project as economic and social indicators to enable it to measure the market and non-market benefits of domestic gas.
The socio-economic profile of the surveyed areas has been drawn from primary data collected through key informants at the village and household levels. The report presents findings on the following indicators: Socio-economic indicators (income & expenditure / education / health & sanitation), Demographic indicators, Infrastructure, Gender, Energy-sources, and Livestock/Agriculture. The survey was conducted in Faisalabad and Vehari districts of the Punjab province and a total of 21 villages were surveyed.
The objectives of this study are:
- To evaluate the effect of bio-slurry as soil conditioner applied in combination with different levels of the recommended dose of chemical nitrogen on growth and yield of okra and vegetable crop;
- To evaluate the effect of bio-slurry of different ages as soil conditioner and N nutrient source applied alone and in ratios of the recommended dose of chemical nitrogen on growth and plant growth regulators to improve the growth and yield of and yield of rice and wheat crop.
- The use of bio slurry in combination with chemical fertilizers for improving yield of okra was better than compost used in combination with bio slurry;
- The preliminary studies showed that the use of 50% of recommended nitrogen from biogas slurry and d 50% from chemical fertilizer was the best combination for improving growth and yield of rice, potato and wheat. Further increase in yield was recorded when this combination was used in combination with PGPR or PGR. Therefore these combinations may be used for improving growth and yield of these crops;
- The preliminary study on okra also showed that the use of bio slurry @600 kg/ha as soil conditioner can also improve the yield of okra.
Based on the successful experience of implementing biogas programmes in a number of other Asian countries, where tens of thousands of biogas plants are being installed annually, UNDP Pakistan, Winrock International and SNV (Netherlands Development Organisation) carried out a feasibility study for establishing a large-scale household biogas programme in Pakistan in early 2007.
This report examines the potential for household scale biogas in Pakistan for cooking and lighting in rural areas. This is based on the availability of sufficient numbers of stall-fed livestock and other enabling conditions such as availability of water and warm temperature. After establishing that there is a sufficient market for biogas plants, the report then examines how a program might be set up in Pakistan to supply large numbers of high quality biogas digesters in the country. The report ends with conclusions focused on the main barriers to large scale adoption of biogas, the IRR, social acceptability of biogas, credit mechanisms, activity of private sector companies, the market and energy needs, and potential subsidy.
Lastly, the report recommends that concrete steps be taken towards development of a national scale program to promote household biogas digesters through a market mechanism, keeping in view the excellent potential for this technology in Pakistan.
This Practice Brief highlights various approaches used to promote gender equality in the agriculture; water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH); and renewable energy (RE) sectors in Asian countries. SNV Asia has provided extensive capacity-building support in these sectors while putting ‘inclusive development’ at the forefront of the development agenda. The Practice Brief is an attempt to document practices from the field based on successful experiences of SNV in Bhutan, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Nepal and Vietnam. It aims to be a quick reference for development practitioners (within and outside SNV) who are committed to mainstream gender in these three sectors.
The specific objectives of the Pakistan Domestic Biogas Programme are:
• Strengthening the institutionalisation of the biogas sector in Pakistan;
• Increased demand for domestic biogas technology in Punjab through raised awareness on benefits of biogas and access to appropriate financing mechanisms;
• Enhanced capacity of the private sector for installation of quality biogas plants and to offer after sales service in Punjab.
The purpose of the project is to develop a commercially viable domestic biogas sector nationwide. Main beneficiaries are the 14,000 rural households in Punjab who will benefit from installation of biogas digesters as a result of project activities; women especially will benefit from an improved kitchen environment, tremendous health benefits and reduced drudgery through reduced use of traditional fuel wood and animal dung.
The main objectives of the gender mainstreaming strategy are:
• Ensure the inclusion of gender- specific concepts, activities and outcomes, including gender –specific R&D, in successive project;
• Identify the points at which donor funding for Biogas links with all Government policies that concern energy;
• Try to ensure that at least one gender and energy expert is a member of the National Biogas steering committee;
• Recruit and train ‘gender-intelligent’ professional staff;
• Establish links with RSPs and service providers;
• Provide information to women household members so they are able to use and maintain the biogas plants efficiently;
• Contribute to knowledge on energy and related issues affecting women;
• Enable women to use time saved in entrepreneurial activities.
The report presents the finding of the Initial Environment Examination (IEE) conducted for the Pakistan Domestic Biogas Program, proposed to be implemented by the Rural Support Program Network (RSPN), Pakistan. The program envisions setting up 300,000 domestic biogas plants across Pakistan within 10 years of time.
Potential impacts likely to arise from the construction and subsequent operation of the domestic biogas digester units on physical and socio economic and environment was assessed and the mitigation measured identified to reduce the possible impact likely to cause its operation. An Environmental checklist has also been developed to implement the recommendation of IEE.
On the basis of the assessment, the report concludes that since Pakistan is an energy deficient country, whose major supply is imported, there is an urgent need to provide an alternative source of energy and the proposed domestic biogas program seems to help fulfil this objective without resulting in any potential environmental impact. No adverse effect on the environment was identified because of this program.
Detailed findings and conclusions can be found in the report along with the adopted IEE methodology, identified potential impacts and the mitigation measures and the environmental checklist developed to overcome the impacts.
A collaborative study was conducted by Soil Chemistry Section, Institute of Soil Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute Faisalabad and Pakistan Domestic Biogas Program (PDBP)/Rural Support Programs’ Network (RSPN) to evaluate the use of bio slurry, a by-product of bio gas plant for vegetable production.
Bio-slurry is a thick liquid that comes out of the biogas plant outlet and then flows into the slurry pits. As the slurry is ejected after a period of anaerobic digestion within the plant digester (about 50 days), thus, the slurry is sanitised, disinfected and turn the nutrients in more available form to plants. Therefore relative to farm yard manure which is normally piled up in the yard and less decomposed, bio-slurry contains readily available plant nutrients. A farming household who owns a biogas plant will have an advantage of a continuous supply of high quality manure for his crops.
According to MOU signed by both the organizations, the RSPN provided the financial assistant while Soil Chemistry Section conducted the research experiments at two locations i.e. at Soil Chemistry Section and at farmer’s filed to evaluate the use of bio-slurry for vegetable production.
The study was conducted with the following objectives:
1. The use of bio-slurry for vegetable production.
2. Comparison of bio-slurry with conventional use of farm yard manure.
3. Integrated use of chemical fertilisers with bio-slurry to reduce the cost of production and to protect the environment from pollution caused by the chemical fertiliser.
This leaflet introduces SNV involvement in domestic in Pakistan. Biogas technology in this country has been tried with some success but has yet to be widely adopted. Current dissemination programmes largely have a piloting character and commercial promotion is not yet taking place, despite a large potential of about 5 million digesters for the country.
Based on successful SNV biogas experience in other Asian countries, in early 2007, SNV, UNDP Pakistan and Winrock International carried out a feasibility study for establishing a large-scale household biogas programme. Furthering on these findings, a Programme Implementation Plan was written, which details on technological, organisational and institutional aspects for a national biogas programme, including activity schedule and budget.
Initially, the programme activities will take place in four provinces of Pakistan (Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan). The objective of the national domestic biogas programme is to establish a commercially viable biogas sector. To that extent, the main actors at the supply side of the sector are private Biogas Construction Enterprises providing biogas construction and after sales services to households. At the demand side of the sector, Rural Support Programmes organized under the Rural Support Programme Network will be the main implementing partners, but will also include NGOs, farmers’ organisations and dairy organisations. To stimulate the demand for domestic biogas plants, households will receive a flat rate investment subsidy. SNV and Winrock International will make experts available to provide technical assistance to the programme
Contact information details are provided.
In Pakistan, rural households often depend on fuel wood for domestic use such as cooking and lighting, therefore exhausting forests and damaging the environment. The households often lack access to modern sources of energy or they cannot afford it.
Started in 2009, the goal of the five-year Pakistan Domestic Biogas Programme (PDBP) is to improve the livelihoods and quality of life of rural farmers through exploiting the market and non-market benefits of domestic biogas. The purpose of the programme is to develop a commercially viable domestic biogas sector.
The Rural Support Programme Network (RSPN) is engaged as the main implementing partner, supplemented by NGOs, farmers’ organisations and dairy organisations. SNV provides technical assistance.
This e-newsletter includes articles on:
- CEO of RSPN visits PDBP office and biogas households;
- Biogas Construction Companies’ review meeting;
- Pakistan Biogas Association;
- Awareness raising;
- Mason training for construction of international standard biogas plant;
- CSR award 2012 in alternative energy.
Programme implementation document for a national programme on domestic biogas dissemination in Pakistan (2008).
This study examines the different technological, organizational, institutional aspects of the implementation
plan prepared for the National Domestic Biogas Programme (NDBP) after the feasibility study determined the potential for domestic biogas sector in Pakistan as very high. The Rural Support Programme was the main implementation partner at the demand side, along with NGOs, farmers’ and dairy organizations, while private Biogas Construction Enterprises (BCEs) were the key players on the supply side. Study findings indicated that the total costs of the programme amounted to €28 million. To cover the budget, funds from the government of Pakistan and investors were required.
Specific objectives and future action steps pertaining to ten critical areas have been designed and thoroughly explained in the report. Some of the main references included financing, where an investment rebate, credit, and carbon revenue were to be utilized. Research and development efforts were aimed at
increasing the knowledge of domestic biogas issues, and quality management’s main objective was to maximise the effectiveness of biogas owners’ investment. The extension aspect goal involved providing information enabling biogas users to effectively exploit all benefits of biogas. Institutional support was also named as a crucial factor in maximising the abilities of sector stakeholders to provide the services and
support required by the biogas sector to facilitate access and development of quality biogas products.
Based on the implementation plan development, future outcomes in terms of energy, environment, fuel substitution, socio-economical, and training aspects have been designed and presented in the report.
This short document presents the Project Idea Note (PIN) of the CDM program activity 1 in Central Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Domestic Biogas Programme (PDBP) (Central Punjab) aims to construct 18,000 domestic biogas plants at household level. The proposed CDM program activity is the first CPA of the Pakistan Domestic Biogas Programme CDM Program of activities (PoA). The PoA envisions a period of 10 years to establish a commercially viable biogas sector with the target of installing 300,000 biogas plants in Pakistan. Rural Support Programmes Network (RSPN) is the managing/ coordinating entity of the PoA.
The program will be implemented through a modular approach and the technologies used in the CPA are domestic biogas digesters of fixed dome type. The project will be located in Faisalabad, Tobatek Singh, Sargodha, Jhang, Khushab, Chiniot, Mianwali, Bhakkar districts of the Punjab province of Pakistan. Further, the report presents: the anticipated total amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction compared to the “business-as-usual” scenario (which will be elaborated in the baseline later on at Project Design Document (PDD) level) ; the suggested crediting life time; the suggested Certified Emission Reductions (CERs)/Emission Reduction Units (ERUs)/Verified Emission Reduction (VERs) price in US$ or € /ton CO2e reduced; the financial structuring (indicating which parties are expected to provide the project’s financing; and the project’s other socio-economic or environmental effects/benefits.
The SNV Domestic Biogas Newsletter provides interesting short articles on SNV-supported countries worldwide. The seventh issue (September 2012) presents:
• Production rate of biogas plants increased
• International workshop on domestic biogas in Asia
• SNV and FAO release Myanmar biogas feasibility study
• Rwanda: charging your phone with cow dung
• ISO certificate for Bangladesh biogas
• Renewed online Renewable Energy library launched
• Knowledge networking of domestic biogas in Asia
• Pakistan Domestic Biogas Programme newsletter released
• The Arusha Tale
• Biogas Programme for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Vietnam
• Biodigester Programme wins first Energy for Life Award
• Innovative microcredits for Cambodian biogas users
The Social Inclusion (SI) and Accountability Proofing Tool has been designed to help SNV advisors and other development practitioners consider and adequately address SI and accountability issues while planning, executing, monitoring and evaluating a programme or project. The tool has been structured around three key stages of project management: analysis and planning, implementation and monitoring, and evaluation. Therefore, the use of this tool is intended to be part of and add quality to the programme/project management process.