His Majesty's Government of Nepal (HMG/N) established Alternate Energy Promotion Centre (APEC) on November 3, 1997 under the umbrella of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST).
The major activities of the consultations are enlisted below:
• Organisation of workshop meetings;
• Discussion about the government policies and guidelines;
• Assessment of capabilities of the manufacturers;
• Preparation of the plan, program, policy and budget for next fiscal year as well as 9th Five Year Plan;
• Development of policy in biogas, small and micro-hydro and solar energy;
• Comments on the program and budget of BSP/SNV-N;
• Development of the Terms of References for Local Park Project;
• Meeting with Royal Danish Embassy for grant proposal;
• Meeting with KfW delegates;
• Meeting with various other agencies;
• Assisting in programme and budget discussion;
• Comments on Institutional Strengthening in Rural Energy Planning and Implementation and draft final report prepared for WECS.
The major outputs of the consultation are extensively descried in the report. It is recommended that:
• AEPC should have its own regular staff. There should be provision to train the manpower;
• Need assessment of AEPC should be made;
• AEPC needs technical assistance in area of alternate energy;
• Additional financial institutes should be approached for loan and subsidy flow to the beneficiaries.
AEPC should support biogas companies to carry out promotional activity in the less developed districts possessing large number of cattle (e.g. Dhanusa, Saptari, Siraha etc.).
The Bhutan Biogas Project (BBP), a joint programme of Asian Development Bank, Department of Renewable Energy, Department of Livestock, SNV and Bhutan Development Bank is being implemented in four districts since March 2011.
This annual report gives an overview of activities conducted and results achieved in the period between March 2011 and February 2012 as well as a financial statement till the end of December 2011 per activity. Furthermore the report also contains information on the sector situation, BBP structure and implementation modality. This report also incorporates lessons learnt mainly from field, opportunities and challenges to implement biogas project in Bhutan.
Concluding, BBP has been successful in carrying out preliminary activities aimed at identification of critical mass, preparation of promotional tools, awareness raising at the community and households level, capacity building of stakeholders, technical training to masons and supervisors, and commencement of construction of biogas plants. The number of plants installed is bit short of the set target because of various reasons. BBP is fully satisfied with the progress and feels that a strong foundation has been built to disseminate biogas technology in the future. All the installed plants are functioning satisfactorily, and the users are happy with the performance of their biogas plants. These functional plants have been spreading positive message to potential farmers to install biogas plants. BBP is confident that the positive words of mouth from the satisfied users would be instrumental in speedy promotion and extension of biogas technology in the country.
The report focuses on the efforts of the Biogas Pilot Programme (BPP) and SNV in developing expertise on bio-slurry management and utilisation. They aim to capacitate the extension workers for the promotion and transfer of knowledge to the biogas famers in order to increase their yield and soil fertility for sustainability land use. The objectives were two-fold:
The report concludes that, even though the training on bio-slurry is not a new topic for the BPP, the process and mythology on this training was new, also the content. The trainer and advisor tried to find out local appropriate methods and content useful for participants. This can be used in the real situation for Lao PDR to increase the yield and income for the farmer. In this training, the participants learnt a lot about bio-slurry management and utilization and they had practiced this in the field.
All the tools and the methods that were used in the training were useful and can help the extension workers on provincial level to train their staff. Bio-slurry use can also help to increase GDP, especially because bio-slurry will save our nature and land use will become more sustainable. The Terms of Reference for Local Capacity Builder to support on conducting bio-slurry mission is included.
This report evaluates the management of bio-slurry, as well as its effect on soil fertility and crop production in Bangladesh by studying bio-slurry and slurry compost. The main institutions involved in the project were the Soil Science Division (SSD) and On Farm Research Division (OFRD) of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI).
Study findings indicated that the nutrient content of both cow dung (CD) slurry and poultry manure (PM) slurry were higher than the aerobically decomposed cow dung and poultry manure. Further, cobalt, nickel, cadmium and arsenic content of cow dung & poultry manure and their bio slurry were within the safe limit.
Two on-stations experiments were conducted to assess the performance of bio-slurry on yield, and nutrient uptake of cabbage and cauliflower. The results showed higher yield of cauliflower and cabbage when treated with bio-slurry. Further, nutrient uptake was higher in both organic and inorganic fertiliser treated plot compared to no-fertiliser treated plot. Field experiments were used to measure the effect of bio-slurry on different crops (tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, maize, boro rice and wheat), where results showed that slurry has indeed a positive impact on the crops. Further, the yield of the crops was significantly influenced by the different nutrient management options used.
The overall conclusion of the report is that bio-slurry can significantly help in reducing the fertiliser crisis around the world and in improving crop performance. The report presents detailed results from the on-station and field experiments per crop and location respectively.
The “Support project to the Biogas Program for the Animal Husbandry Sector in Some Provinces in Vietnam “(Jan-2003 – Jan 2006) and now “Biogas program for the animal husbandry sector of Vietnam bridging phase 2006” is jointly managed by the Livestock Production Department (LPD) under Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD) and the Netherlands Development Organization Vietnam (SNV-VN), with the BPD as the executive project agency. The Project has covered 24 out of Vietnam’s 64 provinces, supporting the construction of about 28,000 biogas installations. One of the main objectives of the project is increasing the awareness of involved farmers and extension workers on the full extent of the potential benefits of biogas plants.
A number of activities relating to bio-slurry application in farming have been carried out under the project to reach the above objectives with some positive results and also raised issues/questions to researchers and extension workers.
Description of activities is provided in the report. The first is research. A number of priorities in terms of bio-slurry application to farming activities were identified and how to apply bio-slurry farming activity under Vietnam conditions is investigated. The second was demo plots, where theory is brought to reality. The document continues with the restrictions in applying bio-slurry. Further, general observations regarding bio-slurry from biogas user survey and field trips are described and the document ends with a future plan.
The book contains valuable information on different aspects of biogas technology in Nepal, including a detail account of the historical background of its development.
The book contains 21 chapters and is divided in two parts. The first part deals with theoretical aspects of biogas technology, while the second concentrates on biogas development aspects particularly in the context of Nepal. Based upon the research works carried out in Nepal and elsewhere, the authors have made an attempt to include as much information as possible in this book. Theoretical, as well as practical information has been embedded so as to acquaint the readers with latest development in biogas technology. However, biogas technology being so vast subject, the information provided in this book is not claimed to be exhaustive.
The Editorial Board is of the opinion that this book will be useful not only to the national and international institutions and/or professionals concerned with the promotion and development of biogas technology in Nepal but also to those who want to carry out R & D activities in the field of biogas technology. Furthermore, the book can serve as a text and/or reference book to the Renewable Energy Courses offered by the colleges or universities in Nepal and elsewhere.
This Biogas Audit report is Volume III of the in total three volumes that present the results of in depth analyses of the Nepalese Biogas Programme. Volume III consists of the Attachment package which contains cross reference sources with more detailed information and a photo-documentation.
Overview of the main titles of the attachments:
This Biogas Audit report is Volume II of the in total three volumes that present the results of in depth analyses of the Nepalese Biogas Programme. Volume II consists of four different parts.
This Biogas Audit report is Volume I of the in total three volumes that present the results of in depth analyses of the Nepalese Biogas Programme. Volume I comprises a summary of the findings and an action plan.
The report focuses on the results of the biogas system implementation work divided in:
The overall objective of this study was to identify the constraints and opportunities in promoting the credit for biogas plants in the programme areas of Pakistan Domestic Biogas Programme. The idea was to establish feasibility of biogas credit.
Specific objectives are:
It clearly emerges from the research that there are common challenges on both supply and demand side of the biogas credit equation. Here is a summary of issues highlighted by this research: supply-side (Lack of knowledge and information, undefined target market, low-cost source funding, product development) and demand-side (lack of awareness, profile mismatch, access to biogas credit, product availability).
Given the nature of technological adoption both in terms of biogas and biogas credit, we propose a model that simultaneously at multiple levels and addresses issues related to:
This document presents basic information about biogas technology in the form of Biogas Digest Volume 4. The document contains 19 sections on different countries and regions. They are respectively:
• Biogas technology in Bangladesh
• Biogas technology in Belize
• Biogas technology in Bolivia (region Chochabamba)
• Biogas technology in Burundi
• Biogas technology in China (Sichuan)
• Biogas technology in Columbia
• Biogas technology in India
• Biogas technology in Orissa (India)
• Biogas technology in Sangli (India)
• Biogas technology in the Ivory Coast (region of Korhogo)
• Biogas technology in Jamaica
• Biogas technology on Java (province of Central Java)
• Biogas technology in Kenya
• Biogas technology in Morocco (region of Souss-Massa)
• Biogas technology in Nepal
• Biogas technology in Tanzania
• Biogas technology in Thailand
• Biogas technology in Tunisia (Sejenane, El Kef)
• Biogas technology in Vietnam
It is planned in the framework of the Biogas Support Programme (BSP) to provide (in fiscal year 1994/95) a Biogas Extension Orientation Training of a three-day duration to 100 staff-bank members and (I)NGOs. The objectives are to train the participants on all aspects relevant to the biogas programme in Nepal. The participants selection group decided to send for nominations to 41 (I)NGOs. 10 and 3 participants were sent from Nepal Bank Limited and Rastriya Banijya Bank,
respectively. 42 participants were selected from Agricultural Development Bank of Nepal (ADB/N).
The training methods adopted were: lecture, question/answer session, creative group discussions, filed observation and audio-visual presentation. The main recommendations provided are:
• There should be a coordinator among extension agencies: the Banks, the Companies and the NGOs preferably at district level
• A strong publicity and information dissemination campaign should be launched at the village level.
• The importance and use of biomass and biogas should be massively taken up at the farmers' level by organising their groups and associations. It should be also included in their curriculum at the secondary and higher educational levels.
• BSP should reconsider the issue of plant guarantee system. BSP should define the area of operations of the companies and the Banks in consultations with their district level coordination committee.
• NGOs should play the role of facilitator and catalytic agents in biogas programme.
Many participants expressed that the present approach of extension is an individual user contact method, which is costly and managerially inefficient for the companies and the banks.
The overall aim of the proposed training programme was to provide extension training on all aspects relevant to biogas promotion in Nepal to 150 extension workers of banks, (I)NGOs and biogas companies involved in biogas related programmes. To execute the proposed programmes, an agreement was signed between BSP and DevPart on October 20, 1995 and this report is the outcome of those training programmes. The main training methods used were lecture, case study presentation/discussion, brainstorming, film show, field observation, question-answer and creative group discussions.
The training programmes were conducted for 3 days in each venue. Pre-training activities included formulation of aim, objectives and expected result; training needs assessment; study of the background of participants; planning of events; hand-outs preparation; time planning; selection of resource persons; arrangement of training aids; and other logistic
issues. In training operational activities included all events that took place during the training like lecture sessions, film, group discussion, suggestions and forming conclusions. Post-training
activities included documentation of events, process, and review of learning and questions that emerged.
It has been observed that this ʺBiogas Extension Orientation Training – 1995/1996ʺ has become highly effective and beneficial in defining the potential roles of different actors is this sector and, thereby, in formulating of workable strategy for the future. For the rapid expansion of biogas technology in the country, the outcomes of these trainings are expected to be highly beneficial.
Several training programmes and workshops of national, regional and district levels have been conducted with support from SNV/BSP-Nepal as well as from Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). Under the framework of SNV/BSP, Consolidated Management Services Nepal (CMS) conducted Biogas Extension Training 1996-1997 in six districts of the country in the months of November and December 1996.
Altogether a total of 236 trainees selected from the Ministry of Agriculture (MOA), and Ministry of Forest and Soil Conservation (MOFSC) and Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) attended the training course held in ten districts (see Introduction) of the country. With regards to be composition of 236 participants, there were 141 (59.7%) trainees from the MOA, 92 (39.0%) from MOFSC and 3 (1.3%) from AEPC.
Biogas Promotion Training sponsored by SNV/BSP, and passed onto the middle level workers of the three relevant Ministries of HMG/N, proved as highly useful in upgrading the knowledge of participants in the subjects of biogas technology. The negative points of the training were the shortage of time, the number of participants from MOFSC (20% less than MOA), and the limited time to perform the field visit for observation of biogas plants. The positive points of the training included the stationary distributed to the participants, the training materials and teaching aids, the training topics, the video films and field visit and the new model of the evaluation form.
Especially, the process aimed at:
• Enhancing team spirit and leadership capacity of the BSP/SNV staff;
• Enhancing awareness o PRA and marketing concepts and tools;
• Developing a model for biogas market appraisal in a district; and
• Carrying out biogas market appraisal in Doti district.
The BSP staff formed five groups, each group representing different professional backgrounds within the organisation. A tentative model of biogas market appraisal was also discussed. Then checklists for biogas market appraisal at the district and village levels were developed by each group and finalised in the plenary. The groups also discussed and finalised the PRA tools. Each of the groups carried out market appraisal based on the checklist developed and finalised.
The fieldwork was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of gathering relevant information on the perspective, prospects and problems of biogas in the district from different district-based agencies. The next part of the fieldwork consisted of appraisals at village level. Five villages within an hour's walk from Dipayal were identified and each group was assigned a village for the appraisal.
The groups then visited the villages, carried out semi-structured interviews (in focus groups, in large groups and with individuals including key informants), prepared village resource maps, carried out transect walks and thus appraised the perspectives, prospects and problems of biogas in the village. Activities aimed at recreation as well as enhancing team spirit of the staff were also organised for half a day after completion of the fieldwork in Doti.
A feasibility study conducted in Bhutan in 2008 concluded that a small scale domestic biogas program is possible with a technical potential of about 20,000 biogas plants especially in the southern belt and inner mountain valleys. The key question for the development of a substantial biogas program was whether the households having enough number of cattle to install biogas plant are willing and able to invest in it and to feed the plant with the required amount of manure on a daily basis. Hence this market study was conducted to analyze the technical and socio-economic feasibility of biogas program, which assessed the willingness and affordability of livestock keeping households to invest in biogas technology.
Half the population depended on agriculture and is therefore based in the village implying that the biogas plants (home-based) can be managed. Farmers have sufficient land to install biogas plants and slurry pits although location of the cowsheds may not always be near the houses and kitchens in some of the households. There were substantial differences in income among sampled households. Some implied living under poverty while some did not earn any income. Those at the lower rung of the income ladder may not be able to afford to invest in biogas plants unless some financing incentives are provided.
In general, farmers owned cattle and other smaller livestock. Most farmers qualify to install biogas since the majority own more than 3 cattle with the average cattle holding being 6 cattle, most of which are night stalled cattle.
The objectives of the study were to estimate the private and social cost-benefit of biogas plants and measure the returns in terms of Internal Rate of Return (IRR) and Economic Rate of Return (EIRR), respectively, to document the attitude of users and non-users regarding the usefulness of biogas, to identify problems encountered by the concerned agencies in promoting alternative sources of energy, to examine the problems faced by the users and to document the efforts of various agencies in promoting alternative sources of energy and analyse the adequacy of these efforts. Further, the report draws policy implications regarding promotion of biogas in Nepal, estimates and provides subjective judgement on the potential volume of biogas and its overall impact on increasing plant nutrients; and explores the possibility of promoting private biogas constructors.
It concludes that in the absence of subsidy most plants become unprofitable and unattractive to potential owners. The 6 m3 and 35 m3 plus plants are neither privately nor socially profitable and should not be promoted. A reasonable level of subsidy is thought to be 25 percent. The total capacity could be 56,000 plants. From this the annual saving in firewood would be approximately 198,022 metric tons and of kerosene 1,756 kiloliters plus an increase in plant nitrogen of 4,195 metric tons together value at Rs. 196 million.
From these findings, it is apparent that the potential for biogas as an alternative source of energy is tremendous and it should be promoted through well articulated policies and procedures.