The African Biogas Partnership Programme (ABPP) is a Private Public Partnership (PPP) between DGIS, SNV and Hivos aiming at supporting the construction of some 70,500 digesters over a period of 5 years. The purpose of this partnership is to improve living conditions of households in six African countries.
A monitoring plan which focuses on measuring the expected outputs (number of biogas digesters, biogas construction enterprises, trainings etc.) has been set up. Besides outputs, the quantitative and qualitative results on outcome and impact level, from the perspective of the end-users will have to be measured. To be able to assess these results in the future, baseline data needs to be collected. This study sets the baseline for evaluating the outcomes and impacts of the programme. This baseline study establishes a reliable database on socio-economic and gender aspects in Uganda; serves as a basis for monitoring and evaluation of programme activities; enriches monitoring and evaluation through development of participatory indicators; and provides benchmark data for an Impact Assessment of the UDBP at a point in time that remains to be defined.
Chapters of this study are respectively: Introduction; Baseline Study Approach and Methodology; Socio-Economic Characteristics; Current Energy Situation; Gender Dimensions Related to Adoption of Biogas Technology; Policy and Institutional Mechanisms; Summary of Study Findings; Developing Indicators; References.
The objective is to assess the Renewable Energy Technology (RET) development from the perspective of income generating activities and to investigates the role of RET in enhancing employment and income generating activities in the Dhading district of Nepal. Although this study includes the findings on four important components of RET- Biogas, Micro HydroPower, Solar Home System and Ghatta, only relevant information on biogas has been highlighted in this abstract.
The study describes the characteristics of the RET user; in total biogas stoves were used 4.0 hours in a day. Not a single household used biogas for lighting purpose. Paddy, wheat and maize are the main crops produced by the farmers in the area. The interviewed RET user hhs produced on average 1.739, 0.084 and 0.478 mt of paddy, wheat and maize respectively. If the RET user hhs sold an average of 0.405 mt of paddy and 0.098 mt of maize, none of them sold wheat. The RET user hhs also produced and sold crops like millet, mustard and potato.
The biogas user hhs main income generating activities were agricultural based like vegetable, butter (Gheeu) and local wine (Rakshi) production. Fertiliser required for vegetable production is being substituted by slurry produced from biogas. On an average each hh produces 180 kg of vegetable and the estimated revenue from its sales is Rs. 1,620. Some of the feasible incomes generating activities identified are vegetable production, livestock products, poultry farming and agro-processing, which require substantial amounts of labour and energy inputs.
The objective was to define effective demand for biogas installations and to know the socioeconomic variables that influence the potential demand for biogas plants and an effective promotional and marketing strategy. Of the total 800 households that were interviewed, 335 represented semi-urban and 67 percent rural VDCs. The proportions of households installing biogas plants increased with the increase in the amount of land and there was positive relationship between size of the cultivated land and size of the plants installed.
Majority of the large farmers (92%) and medium farmers (65%) were from the Terai belt. Most of medium and small farmers installing plants were from rural areas and approximately 50% had electricity facility. About 72 percent had taken loans from banks and 59.7 percent received loans
by the co-operation of GGC. Most of the loans were repaid back. Among households with plants, 8 percent had received various kinds of support from the local NGOs. Of them 50 percent got some financial support. The manpower status of the surveyed biogas companies seemed inadequate, as well as the after-sale-services. Further, the promotional strategies adopted by companies were inadequate.
Of the total 526 households who knew about biogas, 59.9% were willing to install plants. Not all were aware who to contact for plant installation and the cost of it. Radio was the source of information to the largest proportion of the respondents. Both illiterate and those having many years of schooling were almost equally aware of the biogas technology.
Key findings of the research: confirmed that Ethiopian MFIs are highly dependent on fund from external sources and they will find it difficult to extend loan for biogas user while satisfying the current financial need of their clientele; they also lack human resource capacity to participate in the NBP; they exhibited low level application of modern technologies such as MIS as a result of their limited financial capacity; majority of the MFIs are not aware of biogas technology and its benefit to the society, the environment and the business opportunity for their own organisation provided through new loan product; even if there is lack of proper infrastructure which could result in higher interest rate for rural households compensating the resulting higher transaction cost, MFIs are not charging rural clients higher interest rate, they rather vary the interest rate based on the lending methodology, the type of loan products and repayment period which is the same for all rural, semi-urban and urban clients.
Main conclusions: without building their financial, human resource and institutional capacity, with their current limited capacity Ethiopia MFIs will find it difficult to participate in NBP; lack of awareness about biogas lead MFIs to think that providing loan for biogas user is a risky business and they put forward a number of pre-requisites and additional guarantee requirements for biodigesters for the sake of their own security; lack of awareness found out to be a low level problem that could be addressed by continuous training and awareness raising campaigns.
A feasibility study conducted in Bhutan in 2008 concluded that a small scale domestic biogas program is possible with a technical potential of about 20,000 biogas plants especially in the southern belt and inner mountain valleys. The key question for the development of a substantial biogas program was whether the households having enough number of cattle to install biogas plant are willing and able to invest in it and to feed the plant with the required amount of manure on a daily basis. Hence this market study was conducted to analyze the technical and socio-economic feasibility of biogas program, which assessed the willingness and affordability of livestock keeping households to invest in biogas technology.
Half the population depended on agriculture and is therefore based in the village implying that the biogas plants (home-based) can be managed. Farmers have sufficient land to install biogas plants and slurry pits although location of the cowsheds may not always be near the houses and kitchens in some of the households. There were substantial differences in income among sampled households. Some implied living under poverty while some did not earn any income. Those at the lower rung of the income ladder may not be able to afford to invest in biogas plants unless some financing incentives are provided.
In general, farmers owned cattle and other smaller livestock. Most farmers qualify to install biogas since the majority own more than 3 cattle with the average cattle holding being 6 cattle, most of which are night stalled cattle.
Capacity development is increasingly seen as the sine qua non sine qua non of successful development. Yet despite the growing commitment to show results, documented examples of its impact are hard to find. This paper went in search of available evidence and reviewed 29 case studies of capacity development from three development organisations. Its conclusion is that development organisations and donors need to move away from their narrow focus on accountability to a broader focus on mutual learning. They should also stop looking for the perfect measurement policy and start measuring instead.
An energy transition is required in Tanzania. Household energy needs are currently largely met by unsustainable wood fuel resources and many households experience energy poverty. The traditional strategies to introduce modern energy are slow and unable to reach households in inaccessible and poor areas.
To make an energy transition and to meet the energy demand in Tanzania in a sustainable way solar PV (photovoltaic), improved cook stoves (ICS) and biogas technologies were selected based on the appropriateness of the technologies in rural Tanzania and their sector development.
Moreover this study shows that sustainable energy provision requires a sector of independent enterprises that own the capacity to provide these appropriate energy technologies. Cluster strategies promote the development of groups of such enterprises. The institutional setting for such cluster strategies was found to rely on civil society organizations, mainly because the representation of the rural energy topic on the local level by district governments and public agencies is virtually absent.
Based on the research in Tanzania inceptive cluster strategies are reported and five types of cluster promotion are categorised. The research results point to cluster promotion through existing value chains as currently the most suitable strategy for achieving this goal. In rural Tanzania it makes economic sense to use the limited infrastructure to integrate energy provision and appropriate energy enterprises with existing business activities, such as diary and Jatropha production. The crux is to create the right institutional setting to develop the mutual benefits of sustainable energy provision for households and enterprises.
This report investigates the revenue generation prospects for greenhouse gas reductions by operating domestic biogas installations and is driven by carbon revenue’s high potential to improve the financial, technical and programmatic sustainability of large scale biogas projects. The actual reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by domestic biogas installations depends on the local situation, the size of the installation and the way in which the installation is operated, whereas the “claimable” GHG emission reduction depends on the applied carbon-accounting methodology.
Biogas installations reduce GHG emissions and the emission reduction units can be traded respectively on the compliance (certified emission reduction units produced – CERs) or voluntary market (voluntary emission reduction units produced – VERs). There are, however, trade-offs regarding both markets, such as complexity, cost, financial risk, quality standards and duration that need to be taken into consideration.
In order to clarify the risks involved as well as the mechanisms used in both markets, this report presents an extensive analysis on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) (its project cycle and different methodologies), the voluntary market (the quality assurance methodology developed by the Gold Standard), as well as a guideline that facilitates the choice between CDM and Voluntary market depending on various characteristics. The implications of carbon revenue for biogas projects on the technical and programmatic level are also dealt with in detail.
This intern thesis assesses the economic effect on a household level of using bio-slurry for tea production. In total, one hundred farmers have been asked about current and previous data on the quantity of tea, the price obtained per kilogram of processed tea and the expenditures on both pesticides and chemical fertiliser.
It was concluded that using bio-slurry results in a higher quantity of tea production per sao throughout the whole year. After bringing in the inflation effect the tea cultivated with bio-slurry still obtained a higher price per kilogram of processed tea. The difference in the summer period however was not statistically significant.
Farmers saved money on chemical fertiliser and pesticides. The total average savings (2007) amounted to 2 631 986 VND in total: 2 100 277 VND was saved on chemical fertilizer and 531 619 VND was saved on pesticides.
The increased yields and prices resulted together in an income generating effect of 3 751 509 VND. The income saving and generating effect together result in a total economic impact of 6 383 495 VND per year on a household level. The income effect is larger than the total average investment costs of the biogas installation. After this research it has become clear that from an economic point of view, the bio-slurry is more valuable than the biogas alone.
An agreement was signed between Biogas Support Programme (BSP) and Centre for Energy Studies, Institute of Engineering (CES/IOE) on 6th July 2001 to evaluate the efficiency of biogas stove. For comparison, efficiency of Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and kerosene stove (pressure
type and wick type) was also studied. The biogas stove under test was manufactured by Nepal Metal Cast of Butwal, Nepal.
Efficiency of cook stoves could be calculated by several methods. In this study efficiency of cook stoves was determined by calculating the heat gained by the water subjected for heating and amount of fuel consumed during this process. The efficiency of biogas stove calculated as per adopted methodology mentioned above is found to be 49.44 percent, 43.8 percent and 32.26 percent for perfectly controlled, semi-controlled and uncontrolled conditions respectively. The efficiency of a given stove is not constant. It could vary on the basis of surrounding conditions and quality of fuel used. A high value of efficiency could be obtained under controlled conditions. But in practice this value is normally lower than the value found in the controlled laboratory condition.
The efficiency of stove depends upon different conditions:
• Environmental conditions, such as wind, temperature, pressure.
• Shape, specific heat capacity and weight of vessel.
• Burner size of stove and size of bottom face of cooking vessel.
• Energy content of fuel and quality of fuel.
Finally the report comes with recommendations.
This publication compares the biofuels legislation in Latin America. It focuses on:
• Definition of biofuels;
• Authorities for the application of the laws;
• Duties of the enforcement authority;
• Blending of biofuels with fossil fuels;
• Procedure for mixing and distribution;
• Promotional arrangements and tax benefits;
• Promoting the use of biofuels;
• Priority sectors and approach;
• Environmental sustainability;
• Offences and penalties.
The report ends with clear conclusions.
Climate change is one of the urgent environmental problems faces the world, especially in developing countries like Honduras. The impact of climate changes has varying degrees in terms of socioeconomic and natural systems and therefore present a danger to the poorest sectors that depend on their environment and natural means of subsistence living. To achieve the emissions reduction targets, developing countries can make use of flexibility mechanisms such as the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
In an effort to combat the effects of Climate Change Programme, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and SNV, with support from the Secretariat Natural Resources and Environment (SERNA), made available this scoping study, evaluation and opportunities of the CDM sector in Honduras. The main objective is to strengthen the positioning of Honduras on the issue of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions and the use of CDM development projects in the carbon market, also further optimization the capacity of the public and private sectors to access the carbon market and institutional strengthening on issues relating to procedures. This research is presented as a baseline study, mainly built on the results of a participatory process including stakeholders from different institutions related to CDM in Honduras.
This document, written in Spanish, presents a feasibility study conducted by SNV of the introduction of a domestic biogas programme in Honduras.
The study concludes that there is a big potential for the production of biogas in Honduras, but the introduction of a domestic biogas programme does not seem feasible right away. The lack of payment in rural areas (most digesters are subsidized), the absence of detailed information on the geographical potential of biogas production, the absence of knowledge about the current fuel wood consumption and domestic energy costs for rural households, generate doubts about the potential success of a national program of domestic biogas. However, the study found items that should be taken into consideration in the near future to verify the feasibility or a program.
The study concludes with main recommendations in which is stated that it is recommended to conduct a study of one to two years, which clarifies and corroborate the geographical distribution of the potential market for biogas production, obtains more reliable information on fuel wood consumption, identifies target groups. Amongst others based on this extra information you could implement a project to support the construction of 150 biogas digesters in conjunction with the Association Honduran Coffee Producers (AHPROCAFE) and the Foundation Merendon. Further, the most adequate financial mechanisms need to be defined, as well as the payment capacity of potential beneficiaries and the availability of rural credit.
This report is one of a series of country feasibility studies promoted by the “Biogas for Better Life: An African Initiative”. It analyses the opportunities and constraints on biogas development in Kenya. The study provides a history of biogas in Kenya and overviews three biogas technologies, the floating drum, fixed dome, and plastic tubular digesters. The feasibility of biogas promotion is explored in relation to existing and potential biogas consumers.
The report concludes that there is technical potential for domestic biogas in at least 35 districts in Kenya. Further, there is potential to develop a biogas market in Kenya with several institutions currently working on biogas. The financial and institutional analysis demonstrates the relatively unattractive investment framework for individual farmers for the current product market combinations of 16m3 biogas systems.
There are several financial products available for households wishing to invest in biogas through institutions like KUSCCO, and a range of microfinance institutions who are able to offer non-biogas specific financial products.
Affordability, accessibility of fuel, functionality and aesthetics are the primary factors considered by people in the choice of cooking device bought and used.
Fixed dome systems have advantages in terms of cost (including maintenance), space, aesthetic appeal relative to floating drum systems, but there are not enough technicians trained on the construction of fixed dome biogas systems, and quality controls and after sales support is fragmented and variable. The marketing plan specifies the volume of training and support necessary to support companies to actively promote biogas in Kenya.
This document presents a feasibility study conducted by SNV of the introduction of a domestic biogas programme in Nicaragua. The study concludes that the introduction of a domestic biogas programme in Nicaragua is feasible taken some factors into account. Those factors are described in the report.
The study recommends that the programme should be presented to actors, institutions and local NGO’s that could be interested in playing an important role in the implementation of the project. Further, it recommends that the mechanism of implementation and institutionalisation of a potential biogas programme should be defined. Also a proper operational plan should be formulated with the potential strategic partners of the programme. Lastly, it is important to define potential donors to co-finance the programme.
The report contains 9 chapters. After the introduction chapter 2 and 3 present the history and history of biogás of the country. Chapter 4 presents the methodology and the objectives. Chapter 5 looks at the market potential, while chapter 6 elaborates on the technical, socoal, environmental, economic and financial feasibility. Chapter 7 presents the justification and chapter 8 identifies the areas to start with and presents a suggested programme. Lastly, chapter 9 presents the conclusions and recommendations.
Based on the successful experience of implementing biogas programmes in a number of other Asian countries, where tens of thousands of biogas plants are being installed annually, UNDP Pakistan, Winrock International and SNV (Netherlands Development Organisation) carried out a feasibility study for establishing a large-scale household biogas programme in Pakistan in early 2007.
This report examines the potential for household scale biogas in Pakistan for cooking and lighting in rural areas. This is based on the availability of sufficient numbers of stall-fed livestock and other enabling conditions such as availability of water and warm temperature. After establishing that there is a sufficient market for biogas plants, the report then examines how a program might be set up in Pakistan to supply large numbers of high quality biogas digesters in the country. The report ends with conclusions focused on the main barriers to large scale adoption of biogas, the IRR, social acceptability of biogas, credit mechanisms, activity of private sector companies, the market and energy needs, and potential subsidy.
Lastly, the report recommends that concrete steps be taken towards development of a national scale program to promote household biogas digesters through a market mechanism, keeping in view the excellent potential for this technology in Pakistan.
The overall objective of the study was to thoroughly assess the level of feasibility to set-up and implement a national domestic biogas programme in the Republic of Sri Lanka. The main instruments of the study were open-ended unstructured interview checklists with respondents from selected institutions. Additional investigation methods included observations of biogas plants and open ended interviews with the users on various aspects of biogas plants, more specifically on the physical status and performance.
The finding of the field survey indicated that biomass is the most important source of energy in Sri Lanka accounting for more than half of total primary energy consumption. The majority of the existing biogas plants were not functioning due to lack of organised delivery services. The biogas practice in Sri Lanka so far lacks proper standardisation and documentation. Different actors operate in isolation, without effective coordination. The outcome of the financial analysis indicates that biogas plants are financially viable even without subsidy. The technical potential of biogas plants in the country has been calculated to be 109,621 biogas plants.
A modest biogas programme is, therefore, realised to be feasible in Sri Lanka because the country fulfils following conditions (wholly or partly): ambient temperature for biogas production is warm; quality construction materials are available; unskilled labour for biogas plant construction is locally available; other household energy sources are becoming expensive; bio-slurry is appreciated as an organic fertiliser; and the potential stakeholders have expressed willingness to participate and own the programme.
The study accesses the feasibility of introducing biogas program in Timor Leste (meetings with government officials, potential stakeholders, households and field observations). But fuel wood is the only available energy and the rural households are in strong need of alternative energy. The study suggests the possibility of small scale biogas programme for domestic use. Initiations in biogas promotion (50 units installed throughout the country) have already started.
Technical potential of biogas in the country is estimated to be around 12,000 units with some challenges on cattle dung collection, availability of water and farmers ability to invest. Due to low income of the rural household and free access to fuel wood, biogas is not the first priority of the households. Lack of micro credit facility also acts as a hindrance in introducing the program. So, a flat rate subsidy of about 350 USD at least for the beginning, until the micro credit system gets established is suggested. The cost of plant is higher than other countries but household labor contribution on collecting local construction materials together with subsidy may reduce the need of cash. Moreover, savings on kerosene use is the highest one that alone can recover the cost of biogas plant within 5-6 years.
Government is willing to set aside subsidy funds for the biogas however; knowledge on technical aspects is rather limited. But there are numerous NGOS and INGOs involved in different sectors which indicates strong possibility of resource mobilization and promoting renewable energy technologies through these organizations.
The goal of SNV-Latin America’s scenario project was to explore potential paths for economic development in Central America over the next 20 years with a particular emphasis on the models of organizing and supporting development initiatives. A scenario planning process was used to push beyond existing notions of roles, responsibilities, and solutions for development. With the help of nearly 70 participants from different sectors and countries, alternative models were more openly considered through interviews, research and workshops. The process was influenced by a key acknowledgment: that the region may have to respond to a very different set of global conditions outside the region, and newly emerging social and environmental conditions within the region, and as such, set different goals for development accordingly. To inspire scenarios that move beyond the conventional thinking, a number of broad “drivers of change” were identified by looking at social, technological, economic, environmental and political dynamics that might cause disruptive shifts in regional conditions. These included: population growth, information and communications technologies, environmental degradation, and excluded groups. The combination of these and other drivers of change and uncertainties framed and informed the scenarios.